Urinary indices in llamas fed different diets

Margaret N. Lackey From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Salman, Tinguely, Johnson), and Environmental Health (Salman), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Ellen B. Belknap From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Salman, Tinguely, Johnson), and Environmental Health (Salman), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Mo D. Salman From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Salman, Tinguely, Johnson), and Environmental Health (Salman), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Laura Tinguely From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Salman, Tinguely, Johnson), and Environmental Health (Salman), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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LaRue W. Johnson From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Salman, Tinguely, Johnson), and Environmental Health (Salman), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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SUMMARY

Indices of renal function and damage were measured in 12 healthy male adult llamas fed a diet of mixed alfalfa/grass hay (mixed hay) and water ad libitum. Using a collection bag fitted over the preputial area, urine samples were collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Serum samples were obtained concurrently to determine endogenous creatinine clearance (cl), total (te) and fractional excretion (fe) of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P), electrolyte cl, urine and serum osmolality, urine enzyme activities (γ-glutamyltransferase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), and urine protein concentration. Urine production was quantified. Three months later, 10 of the 12 llamas were fed a grass hay diet and water ad libitum. Similar samples were obtained, and similar measurements were made.

Urine production was higher when the llamas were fed the mixed hay diet. Total urine volume for llamas fed mixed hay ranged from 628 to 1,760 ml/24 h, with a median of 1,307.5 ml/24 h, compared with a range of 620 to 1,380 ml/24 h and a median of 927.50 ml/24 h for llamas fed grass hay. Median urine osmolality was higher in llamas fed mixed hay (1,906 mOsm/kg of body weight, with a range of 1,237 to 2,529 mOsm/kg), compared with llamas fed grass hay (1,666 mOsm/kg, with a range of 1,163 to 2,044 mOsm/kg). Creatinine cl did not vary significantly over time for either diet. Median creatinine cl was higher for llamas fed mixed hay, compared with llamas fed grass hay-0.78 ml/min/kg, with a range of 0.20 to 1.83 ml/min/kg vs 0.45 ml/min/kg, with a range of 0.13 to 3.17 ml/min/kg. Clearances for K and a varied significantly among the periods. However, median Cl for Na and P did not vary over time for either diet. Overall values for these electrolytes in llamas fed mixed hay and grass hay diets were: clNa, 0.001 and 0.002 ml/min/kg and clP, 0.0006 and 0.0004 ml/min/kg, respectively. The FE rates of K, cl, and P did not vary significantly over time for either diet. Median respective FE for these electrolytes in the llamas fed mixed hay and grass hay diets include: feK, 84.90 and 63.10%; feCl, 0.85 and 1.30%; and feP, 0.10 and 0.10%. Fractional excretion of Na varied over time for both diets and could not be expressed accurately as an overall median. Median respective te of electrolytes for llamas fed the mixed hay and grass hay diets were: teNa, 0.007 and 0.03 mEq/kg/h; teCl, 0.04 and 0.06 mEq/kg/h; and teP, 0.0002 and 0.00 mg/kg/h; teK varied significantly (P < 0.05) over time for both diets. Urine γ-glutamyltransferase activity changed significantly (P < 0.05) over time. Urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity was influenced by an interaction between diet and time. Median urine protein concentration was 26.0 mg/dl, with a range of 11.0 to 73.0 mg/dl for llamas fed mixed hay, and was 28.0 mg/dl, with a range of 16.0 to 124.0 mg/dl for Hamas fed grass hay.

SUMMARY

Indices of renal function and damage were measured in 12 healthy male adult llamas fed a diet of mixed alfalfa/grass hay (mixed hay) and water ad libitum. Using a collection bag fitted over the preputial area, urine samples were collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Serum samples were obtained concurrently to determine endogenous creatinine clearance (cl), total (te) and fractional excretion (fe) of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P), electrolyte cl, urine and serum osmolality, urine enzyme activities (γ-glutamyltransferase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), and urine protein concentration. Urine production was quantified. Three months later, 10 of the 12 llamas were fed a grass hay diet and water ad libitum. Similar samples were obtained, and similar measurements were made.

Urine production was higher when the llamas were fed the mixed hay diet. Total urine volume for llamas fed mixed hay ranged from 628 to 1,760 ml/24 h, with a median of 1,307.5 ml/24 h, compared with a range of 620 to 1,380 ml/24 h and a median of 927.50 ml/24 h for llamas fed grass hay. Median urine osmolality was higher in llamas fed mixed hay (1,906 mOsm/kg of body weight, with a range of 1,237 to 2,529 mOsm/kg), compared with llamas fed grass hay (1,666 mOsm/kg, with a range of 1,163 to 2,044 mOsm/kg). Creatinine cl did not vary significantly over time for either diet. Median creatinine cl was higher for llamas fed mixed hay, compared with llamas fed grass hay-0.78 ml/min/kg, with a range of 0.20 to 1.83 ml/min/kg vs 0.45 ml/min/kg, with a range of 0.13 to 3.17 ml/min/kg. Clearances for K and a varied significantly among the periods. However, median Cl for Na and P did not vary over time for either diet. Overall values for these electrolytes in llamas fed mixed hay and grass hay diets were: clNa, 0.001 and 0.002 ml/min/kg and clP, 0.0006 and 0.0004 ml/min/kg, respectively. The FE rates of K, cl, and P did not vary significantly over time for either diet. Median respective FE for these electrolytes in the llamas fed mixed hay and grass hay diets include: feK, 84.90 and 63.10%; feCl, 0.85 and 1.30%; and feP, 0.10 and 0.10%. Fractional excretion of Na varied over time for both diets and could not be expressed accurately as an overall median. Median respective te of electrolytes for llamas fed the mixed hay and grass hay diets were: teNa, 0.007 and 0.03 mEq/kg/h; teCl, 0.04 and 0.06 mEq/kg/h; and teP, 0.0002 and 0.00 mg/kg/h; teK varied significantly (P < 0.05) over time for both diets. Urine γ-glutamyltransferase activity changed significantly (P < 0.05) over time. Urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity was influenced by an interaction between diet and time. Median urine protein concentration was 26.0 mg/dl, with a range of 11.0 to 73.0 mg/dl for llamas fed mixed hay, and was 28.0 mg/dl, with a range of 16.0 to 124.0 mg/dl for Hamas fed grass hay.

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