Use of predictive modeling to evaluate the manipulation of milking frequency, temperature, and oxygen tension on growth of Escherichia coli in an artificial intramammary environment

John J. Goldberg From the Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405.

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A. John Bramley From the Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405.

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Hongda Chen From the Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405.

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J. Woodrow Pankey From the Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405.

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SUMMARY

A method was developed to evaluate frequent milking as a means of controlling intramammary infection. An artificial intramammary environment was used to determine growth responses of Escherichia coli (P4) to natural changes in the mammary gland resulting from bacterial invasion. Physical conditions manipulated in this model were growth medium, temperature, and oxygen tension. Mathematical modeling was then incorporated to generate predictions concerning growth dynamics of the organism when milking frequency was changed. To test accuracy of the model, initial predictions were derived from bacterial growth data in which E coli was incubated in tryptose soy broth for 12 hours at 37 C and Po2 equal to 23.3 mm of Hg. These predictions matched closely with experimental data in which 12-, 4-, and 2-hour milking intervals were simulated in the artificial intramammary environment. The mathematical model was then used to characterize growth rate data from in vitro experiments in ultra-high temperature- treated milk and in vivo experimental infection data generated with E coli (P4). Predictions generated from this model suggested that increasing milking frequency to 4 or 6 times daily controls growth of E coli for a prolonged period and that 12 times daily milking may lead to elimination of the bacterium.

SUMMARY

A method was developed to evaluate frequent milking as a means of controlling intramammary infection. An artificial intramammary environment was used to determine growth responses of Escherichia coli (P4) to natural changes in the mammary gland resulting from bacterial invasion. Physical conditions manipulated in this model were growth medium, temperature, and oxygen tension. Mathematical modeling was then incorporated to generate predictions concerning growth dynamics of the organism when milking frequency was changed. To test accuracy of the model, initial predictions were derived from bacterial growth data in which E coli was incubated in tryptose soy broth for 12 hours at 37 C and Po2 equal to 23.3 mm of Hg. These predictions matched closely with experimental data in which 12-, 4-, and 2-hour milking intervals were simulated in the artificial intramammary environment. The mathematical model was then used to characterize growth rate data from in vitro experiments in ultra-high temperature- treated milk and in vivo experimental infection data generated with E coli (P4). Predictions generated from this model suggested that increasing milking frequency to 4 or 6 times daily controls growth of E coli for a prolonged period and that 12 times daily milking may lead to elimination of the bacterium.

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