Diaphyseal structural properties of equine long bones

Peter D. Hanson From the Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine (Hanson, Markel), and Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine (Vanderby), University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Mark D. Markel From the Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine (Hanson, Markel), and Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine (Vanderby), University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Ray Vanderby Jr. From the Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine (Hanson, Markel), and Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine (Vanderby), University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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SUMMARY

We evaluated the single-cycle structural properties for axial compression, torsion, and 4-point bending with a central load applied to the caudal or lateral surface of a diaphyseal segment from the normal adult equine humerus, radius, third metacarpal bone, femur, tibia, and third metatarsal bone. Stiffness values were determined from load-deformation curves for each bone and test mode. Compressive stiffness ranged from a low of 2,690 N/mm for the humerus to a high of 5,670 N/mm for the femur. Torsional stiffness ranged from 558 N · m/rad for the third metacarpal bone to 2,080 N · m/rad for the femur. Nondestructive 4-point bending stiffness ranged from 3,540 N · m/rad for the radius to 11,500 N · m/rad for the third metatarsal bone. For the humerus, radius, and tibia, there was no significant difference in stiffness between having the central load applied to the caudal or lateral surface. For the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones, stiffness was significantly (P < 0.05) greater with the central load applied to the lateral surface than the palmar or plantar surface. For the femur, bones were significantly (P < 0.05) stiffer with the central load applied to the caudal surface than the lateral surface. Four-point bending to failure load-deformation curves had a bilinear pattern in some instances, consisting of a linear region at lower bending moments that corresponded to stiffness values from the nondestructive tests and a second linear region at higher bending moments that had greater stiffness values. Stiffness values from the second linear region ranged from 4,420 N · m/rad for the humerus to 13,000 N · m/rad for the third metatarsal bone. Differences in stiffness between nondestructive tests and the second linear region of destructive tests were significant (P < 0.05) for the radius, third metacarpal bone, and third metatarsal bone. Difference between stiffness values of paired left and right bones was not detected for any test. Four-point bending ultimate failure bending moments ranged from 260 N · m for the femur to 940 N · m for the third metatarsal bone. There was no difference in failure bending moment between the directions of applied central load for a given bone.

SUMMARY

We evaluated the single-cycle structural properties for axial compression, torsion, and 4-point bending with a central load applied to the caudal or lateral surface of a diaphyseal segment from the normal adult equine humerus, radius, third metacarpal bone, femur, tibia, and third metatarsal bone. Stiffness values were determined from load-deformation curves for each bone and test mode. Compressive stiffness ranged from a low of 2,690 N/mm for the humerus to a high of 5,670 N/mm for the femur. Torsional stiffness ranged from 558 N · m/rad for the third metacarpal bone to 2,080 N · m/rad for the femur. Nondestructive 4-point bending stiffness ranged from 3,540 N · m/rad for the radius to 11,500 N · m/rad for the third metatarsal bone. For the humerus, radius, and tibia, there was no significant difference in stiffness between having the central load applied to the caudal or lateral surface. For the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones, stiffness was significantly (P < 0.05) greater with the central load applied to the lateral surface than the palmar or plantar surface. For the femur, bones were significantly (P < 0.05) stiffer with the central load applied to the caudal surface than the lateral surface. Four-point bending to failure load-deformation curves had a bilinear pattern in some instances, consisting of a linear region at lower bending moments that corresponded to stiffness values from the nondestructive tests and a second linear region at higher bending moments that had greater stiffness values. Stiffness values from the second linear region ranged from 4,420 N · m/rad for the humerus to 13,000 N · m/rad for the third metatarsal bone. Differences in stiffness between nondestructive tests and the second linear region of destructive tests were significant (P < 0.05) for the radius, third metacarpal bone, and third metatarsal bone. Difference between stiffness values of paired left and right bones was not detected for any test. Four-point bending ultimate failure bending moments ranged from 260 N · m for the femur to 940 N · m for the third metatarsal bone. There was no difference in failure bending moment between the directions of applied central load for a given bone.

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