Fluid, electrolyte, and packed cell volume shifts in racing Greyhounds

P. W. Toll From the Department of Anatomy and Physiology (Toll, pieschl, Fedde), Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5602, and the Institut für Physiologie (Gaehtgens, Neuhaus), Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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P. Gaehtgens From the Department of Anatomy and Physiology (Toll, pieschl, Fedde), Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5602, and the Institut für Physiologie (Gaehtgens, Neuhaus), Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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D. Neuhaus From the Department of Anatomy and Physiology (Toll, pieschl, Fedde), Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5602, and the Institut für Physiologie (Gaehtgens, Neuhaus), Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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R. L. Pieschl From the Department of Anatomy and Physiology (Toll, pieschl, Fedde), Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5602, and the Institut für Physiologie (Gaehtgens, Neuhaus), Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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M. R. Fedde From the Department of Anatomy and Physiology (Toll, pieschl, Fedde), Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5602, and the Institut für Physiologie (Gaehtgens, Neuhaus), Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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SUMMARY

Arterial blood samples were obtained at rest, just before, and 5 minutes after a 704-m race, to quantify changes in hematologic variables, plasma electrolyte and protein concentrations, osmolality, and acid/base variables. Changes in plasma volume were estimated from the change in plasma protein concentration. Immediately prior to the race, plasma volume decreased by 10% from rest and total circulating rbc volume increased by 60%, attributable to increased rbc number rather than size. Increases in blood volume (VB) by 24% and pcv by 29% also were detected before the race. Five minutes after the race, plasma volume was 21% below the resting value and total circulating rbc volume had increased 73% above the resting value, resulting in a 40% increase in pcv. Contraction of the spleen appeared responsible for increased pcv and VB before the race and maintenance of VB after the race.

Plasma chloride concentration was the same before and after the race; the chloride content of the plasma decreased by the same fraction (22%) as did the plasma volume, indicating Cl- loss from the plasma. Plasma Na+ content decreased by a smaller fraction (13%), causing Na+ concentration to increase from 151 mEq/L at rest to 167 mEq/L after the race. Assuming that Na+ concentration was the same throughout the extracellular fluid, H2O likely moved into the intracellular compartment. As a consequence of these changes, the inorganic strong ion difference in plasma increased by about 16 mEq/L, tending to minimize the acid/base disturbance induced by the 33 mEq/L increase in lactate concentration.

Results indicated that the physiologic changes taking effect during strenuous sprint exercise in Greyhounds enhance blood volume and aid in acid/base homeostasis, both of which are adaptive for this type of exercise.

SUMMARY

Arterial blood samples were obtained at rest, just before, and 5 minutes after a 704-m race, to quantify changes in hematologic variables, plasma electrolyte and protein concentrations, osmolality, and acid/base variables. Changes in plasma volume were estimated from the change in plasma protein concentration. Immediately prior to the race, plasma volume decreased by 10% from rest and total circulating rbc volume increased by 60%, attributable to increased rbc number rather than size. Increases in blood volume (VB) by 24% and pcv by 29% also were detected before the race. Five minutes after the race, plasma volume was 21% below the resting value and total circulating rbc volume had increased 73% above the resting value, resulting in a 40% increase in pcv. Contraction of the spleen appeared responsible for increased pcv and VB before the race and maintenance of VB after the race.

Plasma chloride concentration was the same before and after the race; the chloride content of the plasma decreased by the same fraction (22%) as did the plasma volume, indicating Cl- loss from the plasma. Plasma Na+ content decreased by a smaller fraction (13%), causing Na+ concentration to increase from 151 mEq/L at rest to 167 mEq/L after the race. Assuming that Na+ concentration was the same throughout the extracellular fluid, H2O likely moved into the intracellular compartment. As a consequence of these changes, the inorganic strong ion difference in plasma increased by about 16 mEq/L, tending to minimize the acid/base disturbance induced by the 33 mEq/L increase in lactate concentration.

Results indicated that the physiologic changes taking effect during strenuous sprint exercise in Greyhounds enhance blood volume and aid in acid/base homeostasis, both of which are adaptive for this type of exercise.

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