Cardiopulmonary responses in healthy dogs during endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract

Albert E. Jergens From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Jergens, Riedesel, Ries, Miles), and the Department of Statistics, College of Sciences and Humanities (Bailey), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Dean H. Riedesel From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Jergens, Riedesel, Ries, Miles), and the Department of Statistics, College of Sciences and Humanities (Bailey), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Philip A. Ries From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Jergens, Riedesel, Ries, Miles), and the Department of Statistics, College of Sciences and Humanities (Bailey), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Kristina G. Miles From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Jergens, Riedesel, Ries, Miles), and the Department of Statistics, College of Sciences and Humanities (Bailey), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Theodore B. Bailey From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Jergens, Riedesel, Ries, Miles), and the Department of Statistics, College of Sciences and Humanities (Bailey), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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SUMMARY

Cardiopulmonary responses were evaluated in 12 dogs undergoing endoscopy (gastroscopy and enteroscopy). Constant endoscopic insufflation was used to distend the stomach and small intestine for 30 minutes in groups of small (< 10 kg; n = 4), medium (10 to 20 kg; n = 4), and large (> 20 kg; n = 4) dogs. Cardiopulmonary measurements within groups prior to gastric distention (preendoscopy) were compared with postendoscopy measurements and with those made during endoscopy. After distending the stomach and small intestine, increased luminal pressure within the body of the stomach and in the descending duodenum (P < 0.05) and increased abdominal girth (P < 0.05) were observed, with the greatest changes in small dogs. Caudal vena cava pressures and mean arterial and pulmonary artery pressures increased (P < 0.05) during endoscopy. Cardiac index varied, with small dogs having greater cardiac index (P < 0.05) during endoscopy, compared with that in medium and large dogs. Minute volume remained unchanged during insufflation, despite a decrease in tidal volume (P < 0.05), because of an increase in respiratory rate (P < 0.05). Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild, mixed metabolic/respiratory acidosis in all groups. Although cardiopulmonary changes associated with gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were common, the changes were often small and of little clinical significance.

SUMMARY

Cardiopulmonary responses were evaluated in 12 dogs undergoing endoscopy (gastroscopy and enteroscopy). Constant endoscopic insufflation was used to distend the stomach and small intestine for 30 minutes in groups of small (< 10 kg; n = 4), medium (10 to 20 kg; n = 4), and large (> 20 kg; n = 4) dogs. Cardiopulmonary measurements within groups prior to gastric distention (preendoscopy) were compared with postendoscopy measurements and with those made during endoscopy. After distending the stomach and small intestine, increased luminal pressure within the body of the stomach and in the descending duodenum (P < 0.05) and increased abdominal girth (P < 0.05) were observed, with the greatest changes in small dogs. Caudal vena cava pressures and mean arterial and pulmonary artery pressures increased (P < 0.05) during endoscopy. Cardiac index varied, with small dogs having greater cardiac index (P < 0.05) during endoscopy, compared with that in medium and large dogs. Minute volume remained unchanged during insufflation, despite a decrease in tidal volume (P < 0.05), because of an increase in respiratory rate (P < 0.05). Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild, mixed metabolic/respiratory acidosis in all groups. Although cardiopulmonary changes associated with gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were common, the changes were often small and of little clinical significance.

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