Cannulation of a lateral ventricle in the brain of Holstein calves

N. Kent Ames From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Science (Ames), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Tucker, Chapin, Gaynor), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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H. Allen Tucker From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Science (Ames), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Tucker, Chapin, Gaynor), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Larry T. Chapin From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Science (Ames), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Tucker, Chapin, Gaynor), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Paula J. Gaynor From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Science (Ames), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Tucker, Chapin, Gaynor), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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SUMMARY

A surgical technique was developed for implanting a flexible polyurethane cannula in a lateral ventricle in the brain of calves. Initially, measurements were made on 25 calves at necropsy to develop equations for calculating coordinates for cannula placement. The distance (cm) caudal, in the sagittal plane, from the coronal suture line to the center of a hole to be drilled in the parietal bone of the skull was: 0.73 + (0.00925 × body weight [kg]). The distance (cm) lateral from the midline to the center of the hole to be drilled was: 0.018 + (0.6464 × distance caudal). The depth (cm) from the surface of the skull to the dorsal surface of the lateral ventricle was: 2.29 + (0.0159 × body weight [kg]). Surgery was subsequently performed on 17 calves. A 5-mm-diameter hole was drilled through the skull with a hand trephine at coordinates derived from the aforementioned regression equations. A polyurethane cannula (total length, 30 cm; 1 mm id; 2 mm od) covering a stainless-steel 20-gauge blunt-tipped needle (stylet) was lowered through the brain and into a lateral ventricle at an angle of 20.5° relative to the frontal bones of the skull. The blunt-tipped needle was then removed, and csf was allowed to drip from the cannula to verify placement. One stainless-steel screw was inserted 0.6 cm medial, and another was inserted 0.6 cm caudal to the hole in the skull. The area around the cannula, bone screws, and hole in the skull was covered with dental acrylic (approx 2 cm in diameter) to stabilize the cannula. With minimal restraint of calves, injection of substances into and withdrawal of csf from a lateral ventricle of the brain were possible in most calves for at least 6 weeks after surgery was performed.

SUMMARY

A surgical technique was developed for implanting a flexible polyurethane cannula in a lateral ventricle in the brain of calves. Initially, measurements were made on 25 calves at necropsy to develop equations for calculating coordinates for cannula placement. The distance (cm) caudal, in the sagittal plane, from the coronal suture line to the center of a hole to be drilled in the parietal bone of the skull was: 0.73 + (0.00925 × body weight [kg]). The distance (cm) lateral from the midline to the center of the hole to be drilled was: 0.018 + (0.6464 × distance caudal). The depth (cm) from the surface of the skull to the dorsal surface of the lateral ventricle was: 2.29 + (0.0159 × body weight [kg]). Surgery was subsequently performed on 17 calves. A 5-mm-diameter hole was drilled through the skull with a hand trephine at coordinates derived from the aforementioned regression equations. A polyurethane cannula (total length, 30 cm; 1 mm id; 2 mm od) covering a stainless-steel 20-gauge blunt-tipped needle (stylet) was lowered through the brain and into a lateral ventricle at an angle of 20.5° relative to the frontal bones of the skull. The blunt-tipped needle was then removed, and csf was allowed to drip from the cannula to verify placement. One stainless-steel screw was inserted 0.6 cm medial, and another was inserted 0.6 cm caudal to the hole in the skull. The area around the cannula, bone screws, and hole in the skull was covered with dental acrylic (approx 2 cm in diameter) to stabilize the cannula. With minimal restraint of calves, injection of substances into and withdrawal of csf from a lateral ventricle of the brain were possible in most calves for at least 6 weeks after surgery was performed.

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