Comparison of maternal blood and fetal liver selenium concentrations in cattle in California

John H. Kirk From the Departments of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine (Kirk) and Pathobiology (Wright), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849; Lander Vetennary Clinic, PO Box 799, Turlock, CA 95381 (Terra); Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Gardner), Veterinary Medicine Extension (Maas), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; and California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Davis, CA 95616 (Case).

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Ronald L. Terra From the Departments of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine (Kirk) and Pathobiology (Wright), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849; Lander Vetennary Clinic, PO Box 799, Turlock, CA 95381 (Terra); Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Gardner), Veterinary Medicine Extension (Maas), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; and California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Davis, CA 95616 (Case).

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Ian A. Gardner From the Departments of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine (Kirk) and Pathobiology (Wright), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849; Lander Vetennary Clinic, PO Box 799, Turlock, CA 95381 (Terra); Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Gardner), Veterinary Medicine Extension (Maas), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; and California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Davis, CA 95616 (Case).

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Jim C. Wright From the Departments of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine (Kirk) and Pathobiology (Wright), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849; Lander Vetennary Clinic, PO Box 799, Turlock, CA 95381 (Terra); Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Gardner), Veterinary Medicine Extension (Maas), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; and California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Davis, CA 95616 (Case).

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James T. Case From the Departments of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine (Kirk) and Pathobiology (Wright), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849; Lander Vetennary Clinic, PO Box 799, Turlock, CA 95381 (Terra); Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Gardner), Veterinary Medicine Extension (Maas), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; and California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Davis, CA 95616 (Case).

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John Maas From the Departments of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine (Kirk) and Pathobiology (Wright), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849; Lander Vetennary Clinic, PO Box 799, Turlock, CA 95381 (Terra); Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Gardner), Veterinary Medicine Extension (Maas), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; and California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Davis, CA 95616 (Case).

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SUMMARY

Selenium concentration was measured in paired maternal blood samples and fetal liver specimens collected at a San Joaquin County, Calif, slaughterhouse (beef = 19, dairy = 54) and from bovine aborted fetuses submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (CVDLS; beef = 20, dairy = 20). Of the slaughterhouse samples and specimens, dairy maternal blood selenium concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher (mean ± sd; 0.22 ± 0.056 µg/ml) than that for beef breeds (0.137 ± 0.082 µg/ml). The CVDLS mean maternal blood selenium concentration for the dairy-breed samples (0.192 ± 0.028 µg/ml) was similar to that for the slaughterhouse dairy-breed samples, but was greater than that for the slaughterhouse beef-breed samples. Slaughterhouse mean fetal liver selenium content also was higher (P < 0.001) for the dairy breeds (0.777 ± 0.408 µg/g), compared with the beef breeds (0.443 ± 0.038 µg/g). Mean fetal liver selenium content for slaughterhouse specimens was higher (P < 0.002) than that for the CVDLS specimens (beef, 0.244 ± 0.149 µg/g; dairy, 0.390 ± 0.165 µg/g). At the CVDLS, dairy fetal liver content was greater (P < 0.001) than that for beef breeds. Mean ratio of fetal liver selenium content to maternal blood selenium concentration was 3.53 ± 1.89 for dairy breeds at the slaughterhouse (liver-to-blood correlation [r] = 0.38), and was 2.11 ± 1.00 for dairy breeds at the CVDLS (r = 0.31) and 3.43 ± 1.50 for beef breeds (r = 0.58). Both slaughterhouse breed ratios were significantly (P < 0.002) greater than the CVDLS dairy-breed ratio. On the basis of these results, breed and source location should be taken into account when interpreting selenium values. Fetal liver selenium content should only be used as a screening test and combined with whole blood selenium concentration from clinically normal herdmates to evaluate herd selenium status.

SUMMARY

Selenium concentration was measured in paired maternal blood samples and fetal liver specimens collected at a San Joaquin County, Calif, slaughterhouse (beef = 19, dairy = 54) and from bovine aborted fetuses submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (CVDLS; beef = 20, dairy = 20). Of the slaughterhouse samples and specimens, dairy maternal blood selenium concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher (mean ± sd; 0.22 ± 0.056 µg/ml) than that for beef breeds (0.137 ± 0.082 µg/ml). The CVDLS mean maternal blood selenium concentration for the dairy-breed samples (0.192 ± 0.028 µg/ml) was similar to that for the slaughterhouse dairy-breed samples, but was greater than that for the slaughterhouse beef-breed samples. Slaughterhouse mean fetal liver selenium content also was higher (P < 0.001) for the dairy breeds (0.777 ± 0.408 µg/g), compared with the beef breeds (0.443 ± 0.038 µg/g). Mean fetal liver selenium content for slaughterhouse specimens was higher (P < 0.002) than that for the CVDLS specimens (beef, 0.244 ± 0.149 µg/g; dairy, 0.390 ± 0.165 µg/g). At the CVDLS, dairy fetal liver content was greater (P < 0.001) than that for beef breeds. Mean ratio of fetal liver selenium content to maternal blood selenium concentration was 3.53 ± 1.89 for dairy breeds at the slaughterhouse (liver-to-blood correlation [r] = 0.38), and was 2.11 ± 1.00 for dairy breeds at the CVDLS (r = 0.31) and 3.43 ± 1.50 for beef breeds (r = 0.58). Both slaughterhouse breed ratios were significantly (P < 0.002) greater than the CVDLS dairy-breed ratio. On the basis of these results, breed and source location should be taken into account when interpreting selenium values. Fetal liver selenium content should only be used as a screening test and combined with whole blood selenium concentration from clinically normal herdmates to evaluate herd selenium status.

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