Ocular squamous cell carcinoma in Simmental cattle in Zimbabwe

Willem Den Otter From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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F. W. Graham Hill From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Wim R. Klein From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Linda A. Everse From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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E. Joost Ruitenberg From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Leo T. M. Van der Ven From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Jan Willem Koten From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Peter A. Steerenberg From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Joop A. J. Faber From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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Victor P. M. G. Rutten From the Departments of Functional Morphology (Den Otter, Everse, Van der ven, Koten) and General Surgery and Large Animal Surgery (Klein), Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1; Department of Immunology, Central Laboratory of The Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Plesmanlaan 125 Amsterdam (Ruitenberg, Rutten); Laboratory of Pathology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Den Otter, Steerenberg); and Center for Biostatistics, Padualaan 14, Utrecht (Faber), The Netherlands; and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe (Hill).

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SUMMARY

In Zimbabwe, ocular squamous cell carcinoma (oscc) was frequently observed in 5 breeding herds of Simmental cattle, a Bos taurus breed originating from Switzerland. In these herds, initial signs of oscc were already noticeable in cattle about 3 years old. Gradually, oscc prevalence increased, and 36 to 53% of cattle over 7 years old had 1 or more tumors. More tumors developed in Simmental cattle with periorbital white skin than in cattle with periorbital pigmented skin. Other breeds of cattle (eg, Friesian) also are partly white-faced and live in Zimbabwe in a comparable environment; yet, oscc prevalence was lower in those breeds.

SUMMARY

In Zimbabwe, ocular squamous cell carcinoma (oscc) was frequently observed in 5 breeding herds of Simmental cattle, a Bos taurus breed originating from Switzerland. In these herds, initial signs of oscc were already noticeable in cattle about 3 years old. Gradually, oscc prevalence increased, and 36 to 53% of cattle over 7 years old had 1 or more tumors. More tumors developed in Simmental cattle with periorbital white skin than in cattle with periorbital pigmented skin. Other breeds of cattle (eg, Friesian) also are partly white-faced and live in Zimbabwe in a comparable environment; yet, oscc prevalence was lower in those breeds.

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