Effects of vincristine and prednisone on platelet numbers and function in clinically normal dogs

Andrew J. Mackin From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Mackin, Allen) and Biomedical Sciences (Johnstone), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontano, Canada N1G 2W1.

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 BVMS, MVS, DVSc
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Dana G. Allen From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Mackin, Allen) and Biomedical Sciences (Johnstone), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontano, Canada N1G 2W1.

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 DVM, MSc
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Ian B. Johnstone From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Mackin, Allen) and Biomedical Sciences (Johnstone), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontano, Canada N1G 2W1.

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 DVM, MSc, PhD

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SUMMARY

Effects of a single iv administered therapeutic dose of vincristine sulfate on platelet numbers and function were evaluated in 16 clinically normal dogs over the 2 weeks after drug administration. Results were statistically compared with those of a previous control study in which the same 16 dogs were administered saline solution (iv), instead of vincristine. Of the 16 dogs, 8 were orally administered daily immunosuppressive doses of prednisone concurrently throughout the saline-control and vincristine study periods. Platelet numbers and mean platelet volume were measured, using an automated hematology analyzer. Platelet function was evaluated by turbidimetric measurement of platelet aggregation in response to collagen, platelet-activating factor, and adenosine diphosphate (adp), and by clot retraction (diluted whole-blood method) and buccal mucosa bleeding time.

Vincristine had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on circulating platelet numbers. Vincristine induced a transient mild decrease in platelet numbers, followed by a moderate increase in numbers, with peak platelet count observed 8 days after drug administration. Mean platelet volume was not significantly affected by administration of vincristine.

Vincristine had no significant effects on platelet aggregation in response to collagen, low or high doses of platelet-activating factor, and a high dose of adp. The maximal degree of platelet aggregation attained in response to a low dose of adp was not significantly affected by prior administration of vincristine. The maximal rate of platelet aggregation induced by a low dose of adp after vincristine administration, however, was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the rate of aggregation induced by a similar dose of adp in the previous control study. Vincristine had no significant effects on clot retraction and bleeding time. Prednisone did not significantly affect platelet numbers and function, and did not modify vincristine's effects on the same variables.

SUMMARY

Effects of a single iv administered therapeutic dose of vincristine sulfate on platelet numbers and function were evaluated in 16 clinically normal dogs over the 2 weeks after drug administration. Results were statistically compared with those of a previous control study in which the same 16 dogs were administered saline solution (iv), instead of vincristine. Of the 16 dogs, 8 were orally administered daily immunosuppressive doses of prednisone concurrently throughout the saline-control and vincristine study periods. Platelet numbers and mean platelet volume were measured, using an automated hematology analyzer. Platelet function was evaluated by turbidimetric measurement of platelet aggregation in response to collagen, platelet-activating factor, and adenosine diphosphate (adp), and by clot retraction (diluted whole-blood method) and buccal mucosa bleeding time.

Vincristine had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on circulating platelet numbers. Vincristine induced a transient mild decrease in platelet numbers, followed by a moderate increase in numbers, with peak platelet count observed 8 days after drug administration. Mean platelet volume was not significantly affected by administration of vincristine.

Vincristine had no significant effects on platelet aggregation in response to collagen, low or high doses of platelet-activating factor, and a high dose of adp. The maximal degree of platelet aggregation attained in response to a low dose of adp was not significantly affected by prior administration of vincristine. The maximal rate of platelet aggregation induced by a low dose of adp after vincristine administration, however, was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the rate of aggregation induced by a similar dose of adp in the previous control study. Vincristine had no significant effects on clot retraction and bleeding time. Prednisone did not significantly affect platelet numbers and function, and did not modify vincristine's effects on the same variables.

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