Persistence of immunity to toxoplasmosis in pigs vaccinated with a nonpersistent strain of Toxoplasma gondii

J. P. Dubey From the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey, Baker Davis, Shen) and the Parasite Immunobiology Laboratory (Urban), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350.

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D. G. Baker From the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey, Baker Davis, Shen) and the Parasite Immunobiology Laboratory (Urban), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350.

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S. W. Davis From the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey, Baker Davis, Shen) and the Parasite Immunobiology Laboratory (Urban), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350.

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J. F. Urban Jr. From the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey, Baker Davis, Shen) and the Parasite Immunobiology Laboratory (Urban), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350.

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S. K. Shen From the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey, Baker Davis, Shen) and the Parasite Immunobiology Laboratory (Urban), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350.

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Summary

Persistence of the vaccine RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii was studied by bioassay and histologically in 14 pigs. Pigs were euthanatized 2, 4, 7, 8, 14, 15, 21, 29, 36, 42, 52, 57, and 76 days after im inoculation with 100,000 T gondii tachyzoites. Viable T gondii tachyzoites derived from the RH strain were isolated by bioassay in mice inoculated with tissues of pigs euthanatized up to 14 days after vaccination. Except for fever, pigs vaccinated im with the RH strain remained clinically normal. Two other pigs inoculated iv with 100,000 T gondii tachyzoites of the RH strain became ill, and 1 pig was comatose by 4 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that route of inoculation may influence the response of pigs to T gondii. To evaluate protective immunity in pigs vaccinated with the RH strain, 16 age-matched pigs were allotted to 4 groups (A-D) of 4 pigs each. Eight pigs (groups A and C) were vaccinated im with 100,000 RH strain tachyzoites and 8 pigs (groups B and D) were nonvaccinated controls. Pigs of groups A and C were challenge-inoculated orally with a lethal dose of T gondii oocysts (100,000 oocysts) 81 days after vaccination, pigs of groups B and D were inoculated similarly 220 days after vaccination. The concentration of T gondii at 3 days after challenge inoculationl of pigs vaccinated 81 days earlier was reduced 100,000-fold in mesenteric lymph nodes, compared with that in a nonvaccinated pig euthanatized at 3 days after challenge inoculation. Another nonvaccinated pig became comatose and had to be euthanatized at 7 days after challenge inoculation; numerous tachyzoites were in its mesenteric lymph nodes, intestines, and liver. The vaccinated pigs generally remained clinically normal after challenge inoculation with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated by bioassays from tissues of 5 of 8 vaccinated pigs, but was recovered from all nonvaccinated pigs. Results indicate that protective immunity persisted in pigs for at least 7 months after vaccination with the nonpersistent RH strain of T gondii.

Summary

Persistence of the vaccine RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii was studied by bioassay and histologically in 14 pigs. Pigs were euthanatized 2, 4, 7, 8, 14, 15, 21, 29, 36, 42, 52, 57, and 76 days after im inoculation with 100,000 T gondii tachyzoites. Viable T gondii tachyzoites derived from the RH strain were isolated by bioassay in mice inoculated with tissues of pigs euthanatized up to 14 days after vaccination. Except for fever, pigs vaccinated im with the RH strain remained clinically normal. Two other pigs inoculated iv with 100,000 T gondii tachyzoites of the RH strain became ill, and 1 pig was comatose by 4 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that route of inoculation may influence the response of pigs to T gondii. To evaluate protective immunity in pigs vaccinated with the RH strain, 16 age-matched pigs were allotted to 4 groups (A-D) of 4 pigs each. Eight pigs (groups A and C) were vaccinated im with 100,000 RH strain tachyzoites and 8 pigs (groups B and D) were nonvaccinated controls. Pigs of groups A and C were challenge-inoculated orally with a lethal dose of T gondii oocysts (100,000 oocysts) 81 days after vaccination, pigs of groups B and D were inoculated similarly 220 days after vaccination. The concentration of T gondii at 3 days after challenge inoculationl of pigs vaccinated 81 days earlier was reduced 100,000-fold in mesenteric lymph nodes, compared with that in a nonvaccinated pig euthanatized at 3 days after challenge inoculation. Another nonvaccinated pig became comatose and had to be euthanatized at 7 days after challenge inoculation; numerous tachyzoites were in its mesenteric lymph nodes, intestines, and liver. The vaccinated pigs generally remained clinically normal after challenge inoculation with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated by bioassays from tissues of 5 of 8 vaccinated pigs, but was recovered from all nonvaccinated pigs. Results indicate that protective immunity persisted in pigs for at least 7 months after vaccination with the nonpersistent RH strain of T gondii.

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