Hemodynamic and anesthetic effects of etomidate infusion in medetomidine-premedicated dogs

Jeff C. H. Ko From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 and Orion Corporation, Farmos, Turku, Finland.

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John C. Thurmon From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 and Orion Corporation, Farmos, Turku, Finland.

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G. John Benson From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 and Orion Corporation, Farmos, Turku, Finland.

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William J. Tranquilli From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 and Orion Corporation, Farmos, Turku, Finland.

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William A. Olson From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 and Orion Corporation, Farmos, Turku, Finland.

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A. T. Vaha-Vahe From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 and Orion Corporation, Farmos, Turku, Finland.

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Summary

Hemodynamic and analgesic effects of medetomidine (15 µg/kg of body weight, im) and etomidate (0.5 mg/kg, iv, loading dose; 50 µg/kg/min. constant infusion) were evaluated in 6 healthy adult Beagles. Instrumentation was performed during isoflurane/oxygen-maintained anesthesia. Before initiation of the study, isoflurane was allowed to reach end-tidal concentration ≤ 0.5%, when baseline measurements were recorded. Medetomidine and atropine (0.044 mg/kg) were given im after recording of baseline values. Ten minutes later, the loading dose of etomidate was given im, and constant infusion was begun and continued for 60 minutes. Oxygen was administered via endotracheal tube throughout the study. Analgesia was evaluated by use of the standard tail clamp technique and a direct-current nerve stimulator.

Sinoatrial and atrial-ventricular blocks occurred in 4 of 6 dogs within 2 minutes after administration of a medetomidine-atropine combination, but disappeared within 8 minutes. Apnea did not occur after administration of the etomidate loading dose. Analgesia was complete and consistent throughout 60 minutes of etomidate infusion. Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.05) increased systemic vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output. Etomidate infusion caused a decrease in respiratory function, but minimal changes in hemodynamic values. Time from termination of etomidate infusion to extubation, sternal recumbency, standing normally, and walking normally were 17.3 ± 9.4, 43.8 ± 14.2, 53.7 ± 11.9, and 61.0 ± 10.9 minutes, respectively. All recoveries were smooth and unremarkable. We concluded that this anesthetic drug combination, at the dosages used, is a safe technique in healthy Beagles.

Summary

Hemodynamic and analgesic effects of medetomidine (15 µg/kg of body weight, im) and etomidate (0.5 mg/kg, iv, loading dose; 50 µg/kg/min. constant infusion) were evaluated in 6 healthy adult Beagles. Instrumentation was performed during isoflurane/oxygen-maintained anesthesia. Before initiation of the study, isoflurane was allowed to reach end-tidal concentration ≤ 0.5%, when baseline measurements were recorded. Medetomidine and atropine (0.044 mg/kg) were given im after recording of baseline values. Ten minutes later, the loading dose of etomidate was given im, and constant infusion was begun and continued for 60 minutes. Oxygen was administered via endotracheal tube throughout the study. Analgesia was evaluated by use of the standard tail clamp technique and a direct-current nerve stimulator.

Sinoatrial and atrial-ventricular blocks occurred in 4 of 6 dogs within 2 minutes after administration of a medetomidine-atropine combination, but disappeared within 8 minutes. Apnea did not occur after administration of the etomidate loading dose. Analgesia was complete and consistent throughout 60 minutes of etomidate infusion. Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.05) increased systemic vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output. Etomidate infusion caused a decrease in respiratory function, but minimal changes in hemodynamic values. Time from termination of etomidate infusion to extubation, sternal recumbency, standing normally, and walking normally were 17.3 ± 9.4, 43.8 ± 14.2, 53.7 ± 11.9, and 61.0 ± 10.9 minutes, respectively. All recoveries were smooth and unremarkable. We concluded that this anesthetic drug combination, at the dosages used, is a safe technique in healthy Beagles.

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