Cardiorespiratory effects of glycopyrrolate-butorphanol-xylazine combination, with and without nasal administration of oxygen in dogs

John D. Jacobson From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (Jacobson, McGrath), and Department of Statistics, College of Arts, and Sciences, (Smith), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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 DVM, MS
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Charles J. McGrath From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (Jacobson, McGrath), and Department of Statistics, College of Arts, and Sciences, (Smith), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Jeff C. H. Ko From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (Jacobson, McGrath), and Department of Statistics, College of Arts, and Sciences, (Smith), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Eric P. Smith From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (Jacobson, McGrath), and Department of Statistics, College of Arts, and Sciences, (Smith), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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 PhD

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Summary

Cardiopulmonary consequences of iv administered glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg of body weight), followed in 11 ± 2 minutes by butorphanol (0.2 mg/ kg) and xylazine (0.5 mg/kg), were evaluated in 6 dogs, with and without nasal administration of oxygen (100 ml/kg/min). Glycopyrrolate caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and cardiac index and significant (P < 0.05) decreases in stroke index.

Subsequent administration of butorphanol and xylazine was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in systemic vascular resistance, mean arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PaCO2, venous admixture, oxygen extraction ratio, and hemoglobin concentration. It caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in cardiac index, stroke index, breathing rate, minute volume index, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption. Mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, tidal volume index, and minute volume index were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs were breathing room air. The arterial and venous PO2 and PCO2, and venous oxygen content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, and the arterial and venous pH, and oxygen consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when oxygen was administered. Pulsus alternans and S-T segment depression were observed in dogs of both groups. Ventricular premature contractions were observed in 1 dog breathing room air.

All dogs were intubated briefly 15 minutes after administration of butorphanol and xylazine. Time to first spontaneous movement was 45 minutes. All dogs remained in lateral recumbency without physical restraint for 60 minutes.

Summary

Cardiopulmonary consequences of iv administered glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg of body weight), followed in 11 ± 2 minutes by butorphanol (0.2 mg/ kg) and xylazine (0.5 mg/kg), were evaluated in 6 dogs, with and without nasal administration of oxygen (100 ml/kg/min). Glycopyrrolate caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and cardiac index and significant (P < 0.05) decreases in stroke index.

Subsequent administration of butorphanol and xylazine was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in systemic vascular resistance, mean arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PaCO2, venous admixture, oxygen extraction ratio, and hemoglobin concentration. It caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in cardiac index, stroke index, breathing rate, minute volume index, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption. Mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, tidal volume index, and minute volume index were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs were breathing room air. The arterial and venous PO2 and PCO2, and venous oxygen content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, and the arterial and venous pH, and oxygen consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when oxygen was administered. Pulsus alternans and S-T segment depression were observed in dogs of both groups. Ventricular premature contractions were observed in 1 dog breathing room air.

All dogs were intubated briefly 15 minutes after administration of butorphanol and xylazine. Time to first spontaneous movement was 45 minutes. All dogs remained in lateral recumbency without physical restraint for 60 minutes.

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