Administration of total parenteral nutrition in pigeons

Laurel Degernes From the Department of Companion Animals and Special Species Medicine (Degernes, Flammer, Kolmstetter), and Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Davidson), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, and Rollins Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Blue Ridge Center, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Munger).

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Gigi Davidson From the Department of Companion Animals and Special Species Medicine (Degernes, Flammer, Kolmstetter), and Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Davidson), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, and Rollins Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Blue Ridge Center, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Munger).

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Keven Flammer From the Department of Companion Animals and Special Species Medicine (Degernes, Flammer, Kolmstetter), and Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Davidson), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, and Rollins Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Blue Ridge Center, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Munger).

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Christine Kolmstetter From the Department of Companion Animals and Special Species Medicine (Degernes, Flammer, Kolmstetter), and Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Davidson), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, and Rollins Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Blue Ridge Center, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Munger).

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Laddie Munger From the Department of Companion Animals and Special Species Medicine (Degernes, Flammer, Kolmstetter), and Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Davidson), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, and Rollins Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Blue Ridge Center, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Munger).

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Summary

Venous access devices connected to jugular vein catheters were implanted sc in 2 groups of 6 White Carneau pigeons (Columba livia). Total parenteral nutrition (tpn), or a control solution (lactated Ringer's solution) was infused as a bolus 4 times daily. Physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical variables were monitored over 5 days. Complications in the TPN-treated pigeons included 8.7% weight loss during the 5-day trial, hyperglycemia for up to 90 minutes after infusion, and glucosuria after infusion. Control pigeons lost 1.3% of their body weight and did not become hyperglycemic or glucosuric after infusion. Hematocrit in both groups of pigeons decreased to a value slightly below published reference values for pigeons. Five pigeons developed venous thrombosis in the proximal part of the cranial vena cava. Results indicated that intermittent administration of tpn is possible in birds; however, further research is required to develop better techniques for administration of tpn solutions. Additionally, it is important to determine, more specifically, the caloric and nutrient requirements of pigeons under stress and receiving tpn.

Summary

Venous access devices connected to jugular vein catheters were implanted sc in 2 groups of 6 White Carneau pigeons (Columba livia). Total parenteral nutrition (tpn), or a control solution (lactated Ringer's solution) was infused as a bolus 4 times daily. Physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical variables were monitored over 5 days. Complications in the TPN-treated pigeons included 8.7% weight loss during the 5-day trial, hyperglycemia for up to 90 minutes after infusion, and glucosuria after infusion. Control pigeons lost 1.3% of their body weight and did not become hyperglycemic or glucosuric after infusion. Hematocrit in both groups of pigeons decreased to a value slightly below published reference values for pigeons. Five pigeons developed venous thrombosis in the proximal part of the cranial vena cava. Results indicated that intermittent administration of tpn is possible in birds; however, further research is required to develop better techniques for administration of tpn solutions. Additionally, it is important to determine, more specifically, the caloric and nutrient requirements of pigeons under stress and receiving tpn.

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