Spectrum analysis of diaphragmatic global electromyograms in cattle, with special regard to appropriate strategy for detection of fatigue

Daniel J-M. Desmecht From the Laboratory for Functional Investigation (Desmecht, Linden, Close, Lekeux) and the Department of Genetics (Michaux), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster, B42 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.

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Annick S. Linden From the Laboratory for Functional Investigation (Desmecht, Linden, Close, Lekeux) and the Department of Genetics (Michaux), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster, B42 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.

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Roland P. Close From the Laboratory for Functional Investigation (Desmecht, Linden, Close, Lekeux) and the Department of Genetics (Michaux), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster, B42 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.

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Charles L. Michaux From the Laboratory for Functional Investigation (Desmecht, Linden, Close, Lekeux) and the Department of Genetics (Michaux), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster, B42 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.

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Pierre M. Lekeux From the Laboratory for Functional Investigation (Desmecht, Linden, Close, Lekeux) and the Department of Genetics (Michaux), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster, B42 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.

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Summary

Although the respiratory tract of healthy and diseased cattle has been intensively studied during the past few years, only a few attempts to detect dysfunctions of bovine inspiratory muscles have been reported. Such technique would be useful in assessing the possibility of inspiratory muscle fatigue in the context of ventilatory failure. Fatigue in skeletal muscle is associated with characteristic changes in the electromyographic power spectrum. Power spectral analysis was therefore applied to cattle diaphragmatic electromyograms (emgdi) to precisely determine the exact influence of motion and ecg artifacts, describe its basic frequency content, and extract a spectral index capable of providing an accurate warning of fatigue.

The emgdi was recorded via intramuscularly placed fishhook electrodes in 5 healthy young bulls during resting and stimulated respiration. The emgdi and egc signals were analyzed by use of power spectral density analysis after band-pass filtering (20 to 1,800 Hz). The emgdi spectrum was concentrated in the band width 20 to 530 Hz. Electrode motion artifacts were absent, and it was always possible to find an electrode pair giving ecg-free emgdi. Of the 12 power and frequency values used to quantitate the spectrum, the most stable was the centroid frequency. It was reproducible within and between calves and was only minimally altered by changing inspiratory load.

Though the clinical relevance of fatigue in the respiratory musculature in case of ventilatory failure is currently unknown, the method described here constitutes a possible approach to detection of such phenomenon in cattle.

Summary

Although the respiratory tract of healthy and diseased cattle has been intensively studied during the past few years, only a few attempts to detect dysfunctions of bovine inspiratory muscles have been reported. Such technique would be useful in assessing the possibility of inspiratory muscle fatigue in the context of ventilatory failure. Fatigue in skeletal muscle is associated with characteristic changes in the electromyographic power spectrum. Power spectral analysis was therefore applied to cattle diaphragmatic electromyograms (emgdi) to precisely determine the exact influence of motion and ecg artifacts, describe its basic frequency content, and extract a spectral index capable of providing an accurate warning of fatigue.

The emgdi was recorded via intramuscularly placed fishhook electrodes in 5 healthy young bulls during resting and stimulated respiration. The emgdi and egc signals were analyzed by use of power spectral density analysis after band-pass filtering (20 to 1,800 Hz). The emgdi spectrum was concentrated in the band width 20 to 530 Hz. Electrode motion artifacts were absent, and it was always possible to find an electrode pair giving ecg-free emgdi. Of the 12 power and frequency values used to quantitate the spectrum, the most stable was the centroid frequency. It was reproducible within and between calves and was only minimally altered by changing inspiratory load.

Though the clinical relevance of fatigue in the respiratory musculature in case of ventilatory failure is currently unknown, the method described here constitutes a possible approach to detection of such phenomenon in cattle.

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