Influence of vitamin E on aflatoxicosis in growing swine

Roger B. Harvey From USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, Rte 5, Box 810, College Station, TX 77845.

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 DVM, MS
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Leon F. Kubena From USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, Rte 5, Box 810, College Station, TX 77845.

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Marcel H. Elissalde From USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, Rte 5, Box 810, College Station, TX 77845.

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 PhD

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Summary

Effects of dietary aflatoxin (af) and supplemental Vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) were evaluated in growing crossbred pigs. Nine barrows (3 replicates of 3 each, mean body weight, 14.0 kg) per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (for a total of 36 barrows): 0 IU of supplemental vitamin E and 0 mg of af/kg of feed (control); 2,400 IU of vitamin E divided into equal doses and administered im on days 1 and 16; 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed; or 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed plus 2,400 IU of vitamin E administered similarly to treatment 2. Barrows were administered their respective treatment for 32 days. Evaluations were made for group production performance and for serum biochemical, immunologic, hematologic, pathologic, serum and tissue tocopherol, and serum retinol variables. Body weight was reduced by af-alone and af plus vitamin E treatments, compared with control and vitamin E-alone treatments. Liver weight was increased for the af alone-treated and the af plus vitamin E-treated barrows, compared with control barrows. The af alone-treated barrows had alterations in:serum values of alkaline phosphatase, γglutamyltransferase, albumin, glucose, phosphorus, calcium, cholesterol, total iron, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, total iron-binding capacity, and urea nitrogen; RBC numbers, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and prothrombin time; and mitogen-induced lymphoblastogenic responses. With the exception of some slight ameliorating effects on hematologic measurements, supplemental treatment with vitamin E did not prove beneficial against the toxicosis-associated af treatment. The af alone-treated barrows had decreased serum tocopherol and retinol concentrations, compared with control and pretest values, and decreased tocopherol concentration in cardiac tissue. High parenterally administered doses of vitamin E did not have sparing effect on af-induced reductions of serum tocopherol or retinol concentration; however, compared with pretest values, serum tocopherol concentration was increased by vitamin E-alone treatment. Tocopherol concentration in cardiac tissue of the af plus vitamin E-treated barrows was increased over that of the af alone-treated barrows, indicating an ameliorating effect on af-induced tissue concentrations reductions. These data indicate that vitamin E may not have a sparing effect on af-induced toxicosis and that af may reduce serum retinol and serum and tissue tocopherol concentrations.

Summary

Effects of dietary aflatoxin (af) and supplemental Vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) were evaluated in growing crossbred pigs. Nine barrows (3 replicates of 3 each, mean body weight, 14.0 kg) per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (for a total of 36 barrows): 0 IU of supplemental vitamin E and 0 mg of af/kg of feed (control); 2,400 IU of vitamin E divided into equal doses and administered im on days 1 and 16; 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed; or 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed plus 2,400 IU of vitamin E administered similarly to treatment 2. Barrows were administered their respective treatment for 32 days. Evaluations were made for group production performance and for serum biochemical, immunologic, hematologic, pathologic, serum and tissue tocopherol, and serum retinol variables. Body weight was reduced by af-alone and af plus vitamin E treatments, compared with control and vitamin E-alone treatments. Liver weight was increased for the af alone-treated and the af plus vitamin E-treated barrows, compared with control barrows. The af alone-treated barrows had alterations in:serum values of alkaline phosphatase, γglutamyltransferase, albumin, glucose, phosphorus, calcium, cholesterol, total iron, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, total iron-binding capacity, and urea nitrogen; RBC numbers, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and prothrombin time; and mitogen-induced lymphoblastogenic responses. With the exception of some slight ameliorating effects on hematologic measurements, supplemental treatment with vitamin E did not prove beneficial against the toxicosis-associated af treatment. The af alone-treated barrows had decreased serum tocopherol and retinol concentrations, compared with control and pretest values, and decreased tocopherol concentration in cardiac tissue. High parenterally administered doses of vitamin E did not have sparing effect on af-induced reductions of serum tocopherol or retinol concentration; however, compared with pretest values, serum tocopherol concentration was increased by vitamin E-alone treatment. Tocopherol concentration in cardiac tissue of the af plus vitamin E-treated barrows was increased over that of the af alone-treated barrows, indicating an ameliorating effect on af-induced tissue concentrations reductions. These data indicate that vitamin E may not have a sparing effect on af-induced toxicosis and that af may reduce serum retinol and serum and tissue tocopherol concentrations.

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