Lymphocyte proliferation responses of pigs inoculated with transmissible gastroenteritis virus or porcine respiratory coronavirus

Theresa A. Brim From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691-4096 (Brim, VanCott, Saif), and the USDA, Helminthic Diseases Laboratory, ARS, LPSI, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Lunney).

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John L. VanCott From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691-4096 (Brim, VanCott, Saif), and the USDA, Helminthic Diseases Laboratory, ARS, LPSI, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Lunney).

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Joan K. Lunney From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691-4096 (Brim, VanCott, Saif), and the USDA, Helminthic Diseases Laboratory, ARS, LPSI, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Lunney).

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Linda J. Saif From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691-4096 (Brim, VanCott, Saif), and the USDA, Helminthic Diseases Laboratory, ARS, LPSI, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Lunney).

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Summary

Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in intestinal, respiratory, and systemic lymphoid tissues of pigs exposed when 11 days old to virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), attenuated tgev, or porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), 3 antigenically related porcine coronaviruses with distinct enteric and respiratory tissue tropisms. Mononuclear cells were prepared from mesenteric lymph nodes (mln), bronchial lymph nodes (bln), and spleens of pigs and tested for virus-specific responses by use of lymphocyte proliferation assays. Vigorous mln and bln proliferation responses to virulent tgev and prcv, respectively, at postinoculation days 8 to 24 were strongly associated with prior detection of tgev in rectal swab samples and prcv in nasal swab samples. Gastrointestinal disease and intestinal virus replication, assessed on the basis of rectal virus shedding, were almost exclusively found in the virulent tgev-inoculated pigs, even though virulent tgev and a high dose of attenuated tgev elicited the highest proliferation responses in mln. Pigs exposed to prcv or attenuated tgev did not have clinical signs of disease, and only 1 pig given a high dose of attenuated tgev shed virus in feces. Porcine respiratory coronavirus replicated in the respiratory tract after either oronasal or aerosol inoculation of virus and induced strong bln, but not mln, proliferation responses. A high dose of attenuated tgev (4 × 108 plaque-forming units) was more effective than a lower dose of attenuated tgev (7 × 106 plaque-forming units) in eliciting significant lymphocyte proliferation in mln and bln. Cellular immune function, assessed on the basis of mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes, was comparable for all 3 sources of lymphocytes and was not adversely affected by exposure to any of the 3 coronaviruses, nor did it vary with age of the pigs. The tissue tropism of tgev and prcv was associated with induction of virus-specific cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by substantial lymphocyte proliferation responses in mln and bln, mucosa-associated lymph nodes adjacent to the primary sites of virus replication. The failure of prcv strain ISU-1 to replicate in the intestinal tract correlated with poor virus-specific cellular immune responses in mln.

Summary

Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in intestinal, respiratory, and systemic lymphoid tissues of pigs exposed when 11 days old to virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), attenuated tgev, or porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), 3 antigenically related porcine coronaviruses with distinct enteric and respiratory tissue tropisms. Mononuclear cells were prepared from mesenteric lymph nodes (mln), bronchial lymph nodes (bln), and spleens of pigs and tested for virus-specific responses by use of lymphocyte proliferation assays. Vigorous mln and bln proliferation responses to virulent tgev and prcv, respectively, at postinoculation days 8 to 24 were strongly associated with prior detection of tgev in rectal swab samples and prcv in nasal swab samples. Gastrointestinal disease and intestinal virus replication, assessed on the basis of rectal virus shedding, were almost exclusively found in the virulent tgev-inoculated pigs, even though virulent tgev and a high dose of attenuated tgev elicited the highest proliferation responses in mln. Pigs exposed to prcv or attenuated tgev did not have clinical signs of disease, and only 1 pig given a high dose of attenuated tgev shed virus in feces. Porcine respiratory coronavirus replicated in the respiratory tract after either oronasal or aerosol inoculation of virus and induced strong bln, but not mln, proliferation responses. A high dose of attenuated tgev (4 × 108 plaque-forming units) was more effective than a lower dose of attenuated tgev (7 × 106 plaque-forming units) in eliciting significant lymphocyte proliferation in mln and bln. Cellular immune function, assessed on the basis of mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes, was comparable for all 3 sources of lymphocytes and was not adversely affected by exposure to any of the 3 coronaviruses, nor did it vary with age of the pigs. The tissue tropism of tgev and prcv was associated with induction of virus-specific cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by substantial lymphocyte proliferation responses in mln and bln, mucosa-associated lymph nodes adjacent to the primary sites of virus replication. The failure of prcv strain ISU-1 to replicate in the intestinal tract correlated with poor virus-specific cellular immune responses in mln.

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