Comparative use of various mydriatic drugs in kestrels (Falco tinnunculus)

Igor Mikaelian From the Centre de Soins pour Animaux Sauvages (Mikaelian, Paillet), Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France, and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences (Williams), Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London, NW1 OTU, UK

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Isabelle Paillet From the Centre de Soins pour Animaux Sauvages (Mikaelian, Paillet), Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France, and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences (Williams), Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London, NW1 OTU, UK

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David Williams From the Centre de Soins pour Animaux Sauvages (Mikaelian, Paillet), Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France, and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences (Williams), Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London, NW1 OTU, UK

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Summary

The mydriatic effect of 3 curare-like neuromuscular blocking agents was tested in European kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) after topical application. Alcuronium chloride (5 mg/ml) was found to be effective at a dose of 1 drop (20 drops = 1 ml) administered twice at a 15-minute interval. Mydriasis was achieved at t = 26 ± 11 minutes, maximal effect was reached at t = 60 ± 39 minutes, and sufficient mydriasis ended at t = 364 ± 134 minutes. Nevertheless, side effects, including temporary full paralysis in 1 bird, indicated that this drug should not be used. Pancuronium bromide (2 mg/ml) had an inconsistent effect on each bird at a dose of 2 drops administered twice at 15-minute intervals, and total mydriasis was not reached in 5 of 8 birds. Mydriasis was achieved at t = 34 ± 11 minutes, maximal effect was reduced and reached at t = 43 ± 13 minutes, and sufficient mydriasis ended at t = 90 ± 39 minutes. Vecuronium bromide (4 mg/ml) was administered at a dose of 2 drops, 3 times, at 15-minute intervals. Mydriasis was achieved at t = 23 ± 8 minutes, maximal effect was reached at t = 65 ± 12 minutes, and sufficient mydriasis ended at t = 253 ± 65 minutes. Side effects were not detected. Vecuronium bromide should be used in raptorial birds whenever retinal examination requires fundoscopy.

Summary

The mydriatic effect of 3 curare-like neuromuscular blocking agents was tested in European kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) after topical application. Alcuronium chloride (5 mg/ml) was found to be effective at a dose of 1 drop (20 drops = 1 ml) administered twice at a 15-minute interval. Mydriasis was achieved at t = 26 ± 11 minutes, maximal effect was reached at t = 60 ± 39 minutes, and sufficient mydriasis ended at t = 364 ± 134 minutes. Nevertheless, side effects, including temporary full paralysis in 1 bird, indicated that this drug should not be used. Pancuronium bromide (2 mg/ml) had an inconsistent effect on each bird at a dose of 2 drops administered twice at 15-minute intervals, and total mydriasis was not reached in 5 of 8 birds. Mydriasis was achieved at t = 34 ± 11 minutes, maximal effect was reduced and reached at t = 43 ± 13 minutes, and sufficient mydriasis ended at t = 90 ± 39 minutes. Vecuronium bromide (4 mg/ml) was administered at a dose of 2 drops, 3 times, at 15-minute intervals. Mydriasis was achieved at t = 23 ± 8 minutes, maximal effect was reached at t = 65 ± 12 minutes, and sufficient mydriasis ended at t = 253 ± 65 minutes. Side effects were not detected. Vecuronium bromide should be used in raptorial birds whenever retinal examination requires fundoscopy.

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