Administration of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin to growing swine

Roger B. Harvey From USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, 2881 F&B Rd, College Station, TX 77845 (Harvey, Kubena, Elissalde, Corrier) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Leon F. Kubena From USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, 2881 F&B Rd, College Station, TX 77845 (Harvey, Kubena, Elissalde, Corrier) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Marcel H. Elissalde From USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, 2881 F&B Rd, College Station, TX 77845 (Harvey, Kubena, Elissalde, Corrier) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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George E. Rottinghaus From USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, 2881 F&B Rd, College Station, TX 77845 (Harvey, Kubena, Elissalde, Corrier) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Donald E. Corrier From USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, 2881 F&B Rd, College Station, TX 77845 (Harvey, Kubena, Elissalde, Corrier) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Summary

Effects of dietary ochratoxin A (oa) and T-2 toxin, fed singly and in combination, were evaluated in growing crossbred pigs. Thirty-six barrows (3 replicates of 3 for each of 4 treatment groups, mean body weight, 18.0 kg) were fed: 0 mg of oa and 0 mg of T-2/kg of feed (control); 2.5 mg of oa/kg of feed; 8.0 mg of T-2/kg of feed; or 2.5 mg of oa plus 8.0 mg of T-2/kg of feed for 30 days. Production performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, immunologic, and pathologic evaluations were made. Body weight and body weight gain were decreased by all toxin treatments, but the combination toxin treatment reduced weight gain more than did either of the toxins administered singly and could be considered additive. Liver weight was decreased by combination treatment, whereas kidney weight was increased by oa treatment. Ochratoxin decreased serum cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase values; reduced mean cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and macrophage phagocytosis; and increased creatinine and total protein values. Consumption of T-2 toxin reduced hemoglobin and serum alkaline phosphatase values. The combination treatment decreased serum cholesterol, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, mean cell volume, hematocrit, and hemoglobin values, as well as lymphoblastogenesis and phagocytosis, and increased serum creatinine concentration. We concluded that oa and T-2, singly or in combination, can affect clinical performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic values, and organ weights of growing barrows. Although some analytes were affected more by the combination than by either toxin alone, the interactions could best be described as additive, not synergistic.

Summary

Effects of dietary ochratoxin A (oa) and T-2 toxin, fed singly and in combination, were evaluated in growing crossbred pigs. Thirty-six barrows (3 replicates of 3 for each of 4 treatment groups, mean body weight, 18.0 kg) were fed: 0 mg of oa and 0 mg of T-2/kg of feed (control); 2.5 mg of oa/kg of feed; 8.0 mg of T-2/kg of feed; or 2.5 mg of oa plus 8.0 mg of T-2/kg of feed for 30 days. Production performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, immunologic, and pathologic evaluations were made. Body weight and body weight gain were decreased by all toxin treatments, but the combination toxin treatment reduced weight gain more than did either of the toxins administered singly and could be considered additive. Liver weight was decreased by combination treatment, whereas kidney weight was increased by oa treatment. Ochratoxin decreased serum cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase values; reduced mean cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and macrophage phagocytosis; and increased creatinine and total protein values. Consumption of T-2 toxin reduced hemoglobin and serum alkaline phosphatase values. The combination treatment decreased serum cholesterol, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, mean cell volume, hematocrit, and hemoglobin values, as well as lymphoblastogenesis and phagocytosis, and increased serum creatinine concentration. We concluded that oa and T-2, singly or in combination, can affect clinical performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic values, and organ weights of growing barrows. Although some analytes were affected more by the combination than by either toxin alone, the interactions could best be described as additive, not synergistic.

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