Effects of subject stance time and velocity on ground reaction forces in clinically normal Greyhounds at the walk

James K. Roush From the Department of Clincial Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

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 DVM, MS
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Ronald M. McLaughlin Jr. From the Department of Clincial Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

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 DVM, DVSc

Summary

Force plate gait analysis was used to study the effects of subject stance time and velocity on ground reaction forces in 5 adult Greyhounds at the walk. Data from 146 valid trials were obtained. Stance time and velocity were linearly related, and stance time had a strong, negative correlation with velocity (r = −0.72 for the forelimbs, r = −0.56 for the hind limbs). Stance time correlated more closely with changes in peak vertical force and impulse than did velocity. Stance time and velocity correlated less strongly with braking and propulsion forces and impulses. The trials were divided into 2 distinct velocity ranges (V1 = 0.92 to 1.03 m/s, V2 = 1.06 to 1.17 m/s), 2 distinct forelimb stance time ranges (fst1 = 0.43 to 0.48 second, fst2 = 0.50 to 0.55 second), and 2 distinct hind limb stance time ranges (hst1 = 0.40 to 0.45 second, hst2 = 0.46 to 0.51 second). Five trials from each dog were included in each range, and the mean values were used to evaluate changes in ground reaction forces between groups. Peak vertical force in the forelimbs decreased significantly (P = 0.048) as fst increased; however, difference was not detected in vertical force between velocity groups. Peak vertical force in the hind limbs decreased significantly (P = 0.001) as hst increased and increased significantly (P = 0.000) as velocity increased. Differences were not observed between groups in forelimb or hind limb braking and propulsive forces. Vertical impulse in the forelimbs and hind limbs decreased as velocity increased and increased as stance time increased. Braking impulse in the forelimbs decreased as velocity increased and increased as fst increased. Braking force in the hind limbs did not change between velocity or stance time groups. Propulsive impulse in the hind limbs decreased as velocity increased and increased as hst increased. Stance time was a sensitive and accurate indicator of subject velocity in clinically normal dogs at the walk and correlated more closely with changes in some ground reaction forces than did velocity measurements. Stance time measurements could be used to normalize trial data within a sampling period and document consistency in velocity during force plate analysis of clinically normal dogs at the walk.

Summary

Force plate gait analysis was used to study the effects of subject stance time and velocity on ground reaction forces in 5 adult Greyhounds at the walk. Data from 146 valid trials were obtained. Stance time and velocity were linearly related, and stance time had a strong, negative correlation with velocity (r = −0.72 for the forelimbs, r = −0.56 for the hind limbs). Stance time correlated more closely with changes in peak vertical force and impulse than did velocity. Stance time and velocity correlated less strongly with braking and propulsion forces and impulses. The trials were divided into 2 distinct velocity ranges (V1 = 0.92 to 1.03 m/s, V2 = 1.06 to 1.17 m/s), 2 distinct forelimb stance time ranges (fst1 = 0.43 to 0.48 second, fst2 = 0.50 to 0.55 second), and 2 distinct hind limb stance time ranges (hst1 = 0.40 to 0.45 second, hst2 = 0.46 to 0.51 second). Five trials from each dog were included in each range, and the mean values were used to evaluate changes in ground reaction forces between groups. Peak vertical force in the forelimbs decreased significantly (P = 0.048) as fst increased; however, difference was not detected in vertical force between velocity groups. Peak vertical force in the hind limbs decreased significantly (P = 0.001) as hst increased and increased significantly (P = 0.000) as velocity increased. Differences were not observed between groups in forelimb or hind limb braking and propulsive forces. Vertical impulse in the forelimbs and hind limbs decreased as velocity increased and increased as stance time increased. Braking impulse in the forelimbs decreased as velocity increased and increased as fst increased. Braking force in the hind limbs did not change between velocity or stance time groups. Propulsive impulse in the hind limbs decreased as velocity increased and increased as hst increased. Stance time was a sensitive and accurate indicator of subject velocity in clinically normal dogs at the walk and correlated more closely with changes in some ground reaction forces than did velocity measurements. Stance time measurements could be used to normalize trial data within a sampling period and document consistency in velocity during force plate analysis of clinically normal dogs at the walk.

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