In vitro susceptibility of equine Salmonella strains to trimethoprim and sulfonamide alone or in combination

Engeline van Duijkeren From the Department or Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicne, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Duijkeren, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Breukink); National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (van Klingeren); The Veterinary Hospital Pharmacy, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Vulto); and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Miert), the Netherlands.

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B. van Klingeren From the Department or Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicne, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Duijkeren, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Breukink); National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (van Klingeren); The Veterinary Hospital Pharmacy, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Vulto); and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Miert), the Netherlands.

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A. G. Vulto From the Department or Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicne, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Duijkeren, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Breukink); National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (van Klingeren); The Veterinary Hospital Pharmacy, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Vulto); and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Miert), the Netherlands.

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Marianne M. Sloet van Oldruiteriborgh-Oosterbaan From the Department or Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicne, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Duijkeren, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Breukink); National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (van Klingeren); The Veterinary Hospital Pharmacy, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Vulto); and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Miert), the Netherlands.

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H. J. Breukink From the Department or Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicne, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Duijkeren, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Breukink); National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (van Klingeren); The Veterinary Hospital Pharmacy, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Vulto); and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Miert), the Netherlands.

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A. S. J. P. A. M. van Miert From the Department or Large Animal Medicine and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicne, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Duijkeren, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Breukink); National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (van Klingeren); The Veterinary Hospital Pharmacy, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Vulto); and the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht (van Miert), the Netherlands.

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Summary

The in vitro activity of trimethoprim (tmp) and 9 sulfonamides and their combinations in 6 concentration ratios was tested against 62 Salmonella strains isolated from horses over a 3-year period in the Netherlands, using the agar-dilution method. Most of the isolates were S typhimurium strains (n = 52); the others were S heidelberg (n = 3), S hadar (n = 2), S thompson (n = 2), S enteritidis (n = 1), S infantis (n = 1), and S derby (n = 1). The minimal TMP concentration at which 50% of the Salmonella strains were inhibited (mic50) was 0.12 |ig/ml. Sulfachlorpyridazine (scp; mic50, 16 fig/ml), sulfamethoxazole (smx; mic50, 32 μg/ml), and sulfadiazine (sdz; mic50; 32 μg/ ml) were the most potent of the sulfonamides tested. The antimicrobial effect of the sulfonamides, in combination with tmp (additive, synergistic, or antagonistic), was expressed by the fractional inhibitory concentration (fic) index. Concentrations of sdz and scp with tmp had marked synergism at all tested tmp-to-sulfonamide concentration ratios (1:1 to 1: 160; fic index, 0.10 to 0.50); smx had synergy with tmp at all ratios, except 1:1 (fic index, 0.10 to 0.27). Sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfadoxine (sdx), sulfatroxazole, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfacetamide had mic50 greater than their breakpoint mic value and are, therefore, less potent drugs. However, synergy with TMP was found for these less potent sulfonamides at certain concentration ratios, depending on the sulfonamide used. Sixteen Salmonella strains were resistant to tmp, all sulfonamides, and tmp-sulfonamide combinations; 14 of these strains were S typhimurium phage type 200, 1 was S typhimurium phage type 61, and 1 was S typhimurium phage type 10. Four additional Salmonella strains were resistant to the sulfonamides alone (1 S typhimurium phage type 171 and 3 S typhimurium strains that could not be biotyped). Results of this study indicate that sdz, scp, and smx are the best sulfonamides to combine with tmp for treatment of salmonellosis in equids, because they are the most potent sulfonamides and have strong synergism with tmp at a wide range of tmp-to-sulfonamide concentration ratios.

Summary

The in vitro activity of trimethoprim (tmp) and 9 sulfonamides and their combinations in 6 concentration ratios was tested against 62 Salmonella strains isolated from horses over a 3-year period in the Netherlands, using the agar-dilution method. Most of the isolates were S typhimurium strains (n = 52); the others were S heidelberg (n = 3), S hadar (n = 2), S thompson (n = 2), S enteritidis (n = 1), S infantis (n = 1), and S derby (n = 1). The minimal TMP concentration at which 50% of the Salmonella strains were inhibited (mic50) was 0.12 |ig/ml. Sulfachlorpyridazine (scp; mic50, 16 fig/ml), sulfamethoxazole (smx; mic50, 32 μg/ml), and sulfadiazine (sdz; mic50; 32 μg/ ml) were the most potent of the sulfonamides tested. The antimicrobial effect of the sulfonamides, in combination with tmp (additive, synergistic, or antagonistic), was expressed by the fractional inhibitory concentration (fic) index. Concentrations of sdz and scp with tmp had marked synergism at all tested tmp-to-sulfonamide concentration ratios (1:1 to 1: 160; fic index, 0.10 to 0.50); smx had synergy with tmp at all ratios, except 1:1 (fic index, 0.10 to 0.27). Sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfadoxine (sdx), sulfatroxazole, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfacetamide had mic50 greater than their breakpoint mic value and are, therefore, less potent drugs. However, synergy with TMP was found for these less potent sulfonamides at certain concentration ratios, depending on the sulfonamide used. Sixteen Salmonella strains were resistant to tmp, all sulfonamides, and tmp-sulfonamide combinations; 14 of these strains were S typhimurium phage type 200, 1 was S typhimurium phage type 61, and 1 was S typhimurium phage type 10. Four additional Salmonella strains were resistant to the sulfonamides alone (1 S typhimurium phage type 171 and 3 S typhimurium strains that could not be biotyped). Results of this study indicate that sdz, scp, and smx are the best sulfonamides to combine with tmp for treatment of salmonellosis in equids, because they are the most potent sulfonamides and have strong synergism with tmp at a wide range of tmp-to-sulfonamide concentration ratios.

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