Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations and clinical abnormalities in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal foals given endotoxin

Gary K. Allen From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Allen, Robinson), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Green, Garner), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Loch), College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, and the Homestead Equine Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069 (Walsh).

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Eleanor M. Green From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Allen, Robinson), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Green, Garner), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Loch), College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, and the Homestead Equine Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069 (Walsh).

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Julie A. Robinson From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Allen, Robinson), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Green, Garner), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Loch), College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, and the Homestead Equine Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069 (Walsh).

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Harold E. Garner From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Allen, Robinson), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Green, Garner), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Loch), College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, and the Homestead Equine Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069 (Walsh).

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Wayne E. Loch From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Allen, Robinson), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Green, Garner), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Loch), College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, and the Homestead Equine Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069 (Walsh).

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Donald M. Walsh From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Allen, Robinson), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Green, Garner), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Loch), College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, and the Homestead Equine Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069 (Walsh).

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Summary

We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- to 3-day-old colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) foals. Eleven cf and 8 cd neonatal foals were given a bolus IV infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 µg kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum tnfα concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as tnfα by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2- terminal amino acids of human tnfα. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preiniusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum tnfα concentration increased in all lps-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum tnfα concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum tnfα concentration, persisted longer in cd foals given lps than in cf foals given lps. All lps-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the cf and cd foals given lps were not significantly different at any time. Serum tnfα concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both lps-infused groups. Mean rectal temperature increased by 1 hour and remained high for 4 hours after infusion in cf foals given lps . Mean rectal temperature in cd foals given lps was significantly less than that for cf foals given lps 1 and 2 hours after infusion and was higher than mean rectal temperature prior to infusion 3 and 4 hours after infusion. Neither preinfusion total serum IgG concentration nor serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer correlated with peak serum tnfα concentration in the 19 lps-infused foals.

Summary

We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- to 3-day-old colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) foals. Eleven cf and 8 cd neonatal foals were given a bolus IV infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 µg kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum tnfα concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as tnfα by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2- terminal amino acids of human tnfα. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preiniusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum tnfα concentration increased in all lps-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum tnfα concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum tnfα concentration, persisted longer in cd foals given lps than in cf foals given lps. All lps-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the cf and cd foals given lps were not significantly different at any time. Serum tnfα concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both lps-infused groups. Mean rectal temperature increased by 1 hour and remained high for 4 hours after infusion in cf foals given lps . Mean rectal temperature in cd foals given lps was significantly less than that for cf foals given lps 1 and 2 hours after infusion and was higher than mean rectal temperature prior to infusion 3 and 4 hours after infusion. Neither preinfusion total serum IgG concentration nor serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer correlated with peak serum tnfα concentration in the 19 lps-infused foals.

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