Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serologic detection of Salmonella dublin carriers on a large dairy

John K. House From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Bradford P. Smith From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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George W. Dilling From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Lin Da Roden From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Summary

Cows and calves from a 1,600-cow drylot dairy were screened for IgG antibodies to Salmonella dublin lipopolysaccharide (lps), using an indirect elisa. The elisa was performed on milk samples from lactating cows and on sera from nonlactating cows and calves. Fecal samples were collected from calves and nonlactating cows for culture of Salmonella spp. All seropositive cattle were retested by culture and elisa 5 times at monthly intervals or until antibody concentration decreased. None of the cattle remained culture-positive and seronegative. Prior to and during the sample collection period, approximately 30% of calves < 8 weeks old died of S dublin infection. Vaccination of cows with a killed S dublin/S typhimurium vaccine at cessation of lactation was a routine management practice. The elisa-determined IgG response to vaccination had decreased by 50 days after vaccination.

Eight cows and 5 calves that maintained a high serologic response to S dublin were purchased and moved to a research facility for 6 months of intensive monitoring. Lactating cows were milked twice daily, and culture of milk and feces for Salmonella spp was performed 5 times/wk. Serum IgG antibodies to S dublin lps were measured weekly, using elisa. At the end of 6 months, all 13 cattle were necropsied and tissues were obtained for culture of Salmonella spp. All 8 cows and 5 calves maintained persistently high elisa titer for the 6 months of testing, and shed S dublin in the milk and/or feces during the same period. On this basis, they were termed S dublin carriers. Salmonella dublin was isolated from mammary tissue of 2 calves at necropsy, indicating that bacteremia may be a mode of mammary infection by S dublin.

Results of the study indicated serologic testing can be used successfully on a large dairy to identify S dublin carrier cattle. Using initial milk screening, 42 of 1,268 lactating cows were identified as suspect, requiring repeated serologic testing. One nonlactating cow, 7 of the 42 suspect lactating cows, and 5 of the 222 calves maintained an IgG response, and were found to be S dublin carriers. Carrier cows shed S dublin in 3.35% of fecal samples and 2.51% of milk samples, and carrier calves shed S dublin in 17.26% of fecal samples.

Summary

Cows and calves from a 1,600-cow drylot dairy were screened for IgG antibodies to Salmonella dublin lipopolysaccharide (lps), using an indirect elisa. The elisa was performed on milk samples from lactating cows and on sera from nonlactating cows and calves. Fecal samples were collected from calves and nonlactating cows for culture of Salmonella spp. All seropositive cattle were retested by culture and elisa 5 times at monthly intervals or until antibody concentration decreased. None of the cattle remained culture-positive and seronegative. Prior to and during the sample collection period, approximately 30% of calves < 8 weeks old died of S dublin infection. Vaccination of cows with a killed S dublin/S typhimurium vaccine at cessation of lactation was a routine management practice. The elisa-determined IgG response to vaccination had decreased by 50 days after vaccination.

Eight cows and 5 calves that maintained a high serologic response to S dublin were purchased and moved to a research facility for 6 months of intensive monitoring. Lactating cows were milked twice daily, and culture of milk and feces for Salmonella spp was performed 5 times/wk. Serum IgG antibodies to S dublin lps were measured weekly, using elisa. At the end of 6 months, all 13 cattle were necropsied and tissues were obtained for culture of Salmonella spp. All 8 cows and 5 calves maintained persistently high elisa titer for the 6 months of testing, and shed S dublin in the milk and/or feces during the same period. On this basis, they were termed S dublin carriers. Salmonella dublin was isolated from mammary tissue of 2 calves at necropsy, indicating that bacteremia may be a mode of mammary infection by S dublin.

Results of the study indicated serologic testing can be used successfully on a large dairy to identify S dublin carrier cattle. Using initial milk screening, 42 of 1,268 lactating cows were identified as suspect, requiring repeated serologic testing. One nonlactating cow, 7 of the 42 suspect lactating cows, and 5 of the 222 calves maintained an IgG response, and were found to be S dublin carriers. Carrier cows shed S dublin in 3.35% of fecal samples and 2.51% of milk samples, and carrier calves shed S dublin in 17.26% of fecal samples.

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