Effect of homologous fibrin adhesive on callus formation and extracortical bone bridging around a porous-coated segmental endoprosthesis in dogs

Robert G. Roy From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St Paul MN, 55108 (Roy, Lipowitz), the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, May Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (Markel, Gottsauner-Wolf, Chao), and the Section of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Taswell), Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905.

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Mark D. Markel From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St Paul MN, 55108 (Roy, Lipowitz), the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, May Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (Markel, Gottsauner-Wolf, Chao), and the Section of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Taswell), Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905.

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Alan J. Lipowitz From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St Paul MN, 55108 (Roy, Lipowitz), the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, May Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (Markel, Gottsauner-Wolf, Chao), and the Section of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Taswell), Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905.

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Florian Gottsauner-Wolf From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St Paul MN, 55108 (Roy, Lipowitz), the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, May Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (Markel, Gottsauner-Wolf, Chao), and the Section of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Taswell), Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905.

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Howard F. Taswell From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St Paul MN, 55108 (Roy, Lipowitz), the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, May Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (Markel, Gottsauner-Wolf, Chao), and the Section of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Taswell), Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905.

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Edmund Y.S. Chao From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St Paul MN, 55108 (Roy, Lipowitz), the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, May Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (Markel, Gottsauner-Wolf, Chao), and the Section of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Taswell), Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905.

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Summary

Modular, porous-coated, titanium segmental endoprostheses were implanted bilaterally in the femoral diaphysis of 7 adult mixed-breed dogs. Autogenous bone graft in particle form was placed around the implant and bone. In 1 limb, homologous fibrin adhesive was mixed with the graft in situ before soft tissue closure. The contralateral limb was grafted in identical manner, but without fibrin adhesive, and served as a control. Radiography was performed immediately after surgery and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks later to assess callus area and bone remodeling. At 12 weeks, dogs were euthanatized and bone/implant fixation strength was tested under torsion and compared with values for 6 in vitro controls. Histomorphometric and microradiographic analyses of transverse sections of the distal portion of the implanted femurs were performed. Radiographic callus area was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the femurs grafted with fibrin adhesive, compared with the contralateral control. New bone formation (21.4 ± 1.8% vs 19.2 ± 2.4%), unlabeled bone (64.8 ± 3.0% vs 67.9 ± 4.2%), porosity (13.9 ± 0.7% vs 12.9 ± 0.8%), and bone ingrowth into the porous coating (10.3 ± 0.9% vs 10.0 ± 1.2%) were not significantly different between fibrin- and nonfibrin-grafted implants, respectively. There were no significant differences in torsional strength of implant fixation between the fibrin- and nonfibrin-grafted femurs or between the in vivo implanted femurs and the in vitro controls. These data indicate that fibrin adhesive may have been advantageous in maintaining apposition of bone graft adjacent to the endoprosthesis, but it probably did not have an enhancing effect on extracortical bone bridging or ingrowth over a porous-coated segmental bone replacement endoprosthesis.

Summary

Modular, porous-coated, titanium segmental endoprostheses were implanted bilaterally in the femoral diaphysis of 7 adult mixed-breed dogs. Autogenous bone graft in particle form was placed around the implant and bone. In 1 limb, homologous fibrin adhesive was mixed with the graft in situ before soft tissue closure. The contralateral limb was grafted in identical manner, but without fibrin adhesive, and served as a control. Radiography was performed immediately after surgery and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks later to assess callus area and bone remodeling. At 12 weeks, dogs were euthanatized and bone/implant fixation strength was tested under torsion and compared with values for 6 in vitro controls. Histomorphometric and microradiographic analyses of transverse sections of the distal portion of the implanted femurs were performed. Radiographic callus area was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the femurs grafted with fibrin adhesive, compared with the contralateral control. New bone formation (21.4 ± 1.8% vs 19.2 ± 2.4%), unlabeled bone (64.8 ± 3.0% vs 67.9 ± 4.2%), porosity (13.9 ± 0.7% vs 12.9 ± 0.8%), and bone ingrowth into the porous coating (10.3 ± 0.9% vs 10.0 ± 1.2%) were not significantly different between fibrin- and nonfibrin-grafted implants, respectively. There were no significant differences in torsional strength of implant fixation between the fibrin- and nonfibrin-grafted femurs or between the in vivo implanted femurs and the in vitro controls. These data indicate that fibrin adhesive may have been advantageous in maintaining apposition of bone graft adjacent to the endoprosthesis, but it probably did not have an enhancing effect on extracortical bone bridging or ingrowth over a porous-coated segmental bone replacement endoprosthesis.

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