Comparison of 0.9, 3.6, and 7.2% NaCl for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in sheep

J. L. Ward From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

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D. F. Smith From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

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S. L. Fubini From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

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Y. T. Gröhn From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

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 DVM, MPVM, PhD

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Summary

Nine adult female sheep were each surgically fitted with an Ivan and Johnston reentrant cannula in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion (loss) of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to consistently induce hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, accompanied by hyponatremia and dehydration. Each sheep was subjected to 3 treatment trials, each preceded by a 24-hour prediversion period, and a diversion period during which a syndrome of hypochloremia (68 ± 2 mEq/L), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic alkalosis was induced.

Development of this syndrome was attributable to losses of large amounts of acid and electrolytes in the abomasal effluent. Mean total electrolyte contents of the effluent were: Cl, 650 ± 27 mEq; Na+, 388 ± 23 mEq; and K+, 123 ± 12 mEq, with total volume loss ranging from 3.6 to 10.0 L of gastric contents and pH ranging from 3 to 5. Decreases in plasma electrolyte concentrations also can be attributed to decreased intake, because anorexia developed shortly after the onset of diversion. Electrolyte losses in urine during diversion were minimal for Cl (mean ± sem, 12.0 ± 5.1 mEq), but were greater for Na+ (124.2 ± 14.5 mEq) and K+ (185.1 ± 31.2 mEq).

Treatments consisted of 0.9% NaCl (300 mosm/L), 3.6% NaCl (1,200 mosm/L), and 7.2% NaCl (2,400 mosm/L) administered over a 2-hour period, with the administered volume determined by the estimated total extracellular fluid Cl deficit. Significant difference was not found among treatments, with all solutions resulting in return of clinicopathologic and physical variables to prediversion values within 12 hours of treatment. We concluded that rapid iv replacement of Cl, with small volumes of hypertonic saline solution, is safe and effective for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Summary

Nine adult female sheep were each surgically fitted with an Ivan and Johnston reentrant cannula in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion (loss) of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to consistently induce hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, accompanied by hyponatremia and dehydration. Each sheep was subjected to 3 treatment trials, each preceded by a 24-hour prediversion period, and a diversion period during which a syndrome of hypochloremia (68 ± 2 mEq/L), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic alkalosis was induced.

Development of this syndrome was attributable to losses of large amounts of acid and electrolytes in the abomasal effluent. Mean total electrolyte contents of the effluent were: Cl, 650 ± 27 mEq; Na+, 388 ± 23 mEq; and K+, 123 ± 12 mEq, with total volume loss ranging from 3.6 to 10.0 L of gastric contents and pH ranging from 3 to 5. Decreases in plasma electrolyte concentrations also can be attributed to decreased intake, because anorexia developed shortly after the onset of diversion. Electrolyte losses in urine during diversion were minimal for Cl (mean ± sem, 12.0 ± 5.1 mEq), but were greater for Na+ (124.2 ± 14.5 mEq) and K+ (185.1 ± 31.2 mEq).

Treatments consisted of 0.9% NaCl (300 mosm/L), 3.6% NaCl (1,200 mosm/L), and 7.2% NaCl (2,400 mosm/L) administered over a 2-hour period, with the administered volume determined by the estimated total extracellular fluid Cl deficit. Significant difference was not found among treatments, with all solutions resulting in return of clinicopathologic and physical variables to prediversion values within 12 hours of treatment. We concluded that rapid iv replacement of Cl, with small volumes of hypertonic saline solution, is safe and effective for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

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