Effects of a 44-day administration of phenobarbital on disposition of clorazepate in dogs

S. Dru Forrester From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Forrester, Jacobson, Dyer) and Biomedical Sciences (Wilcke), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Jeff R. Wilcke From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Forrester, Jacobson, Dyer) and Biomedical Sciences (Wilcke), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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John D. Jacobson From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Forrester, Jacobson, Dyer) and Biomedical Sciences (Wilcke), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Karen R. Dyer From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Forrester, Jacobson, Dyer) and Biomedical Sciences (Wilcke), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Summary

The disposition of clorazepate, a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant, was determined in dogs after administration of a single oral dose of clorazepate (2 mg/kg of body weight) and after oral administration of clorazepate (2 mg/kg, q 12 h) concurrently with phenobarbital (5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 44 consecutive days. Serum concentrations of nordiazepam, the active metabolite of clorazepate, were measured. After a single oral dose of clorazepate, maximal nordiazepam concentrations ranged from 569.6 to 1,387.9 ng/ml (mean, 880.2 ± 248.9 ng/ml) and were detected 16.8 to 131.4 minutes (mean, 85.2 ± 36 minutes) after dosing. After administration of phenobarbital for 44 consecutive days, maximal nordiazepam concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) lower, ranging from 209.6 to 698.5 ng/ml (mean, 399.3 ± 155.6 ng/ml) at 68.4 to 145.8 minutes (mean, 93 ± 25.8 minutes) after dosing. Mean area under the curve (AUC) on day 1 (mean, 3.37 ± 0.598 ng·min/ml) was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than AUC on day 44 (1.66 ± 0.308 ng·min/ml). Oral clearance was significantly (P < 0.01) greater on day 44 (12.44 ± 2.55 ml/min/kg), compared with that on day 1 (6.16 ± 1.35 ml/min/kg). Values for area under the first moment curve, oral volume of distribution, mean residence time, and elimination half-life were not significantly altered by concurrent administration of phenobarbital.

Administration of phenobarbital altered the disposition of clorazepate such that the amount of nordiazepam in circulation during each dose interval was significantly reduced. Adequate control of seizures in epileptic dogs, therefore, may require higher dosages of clorazepate when it is coadministered with phenobarbital.

Summary

The disposition of clorazepate, a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant, was determined in dogs after administration of a single oral dose of clorazepate (2 mg/kg of body weight) and after oral administration of clorazepate (2 mg/kg, q 12 h) concurrently with phenobarbital (5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 44 consecutive days. Serum concentrations of nordiazepam, the active metabolite of clorazepate, were measured. After a single oral dose of clorazepate, maximal nordiazepam concentrations ranged from 569.6 to 1,387.9 ng/ml (mean, 880.2 ± 248.9 ng/ml) and were detected 16.8 to 131.4 minutes (mean, 85.2 ± 36 minutes) after dosing. After administration of phenobarbital for 44 consecutive days, maximal nordiazepam concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) lower, ranging from 209.6 to 698.5 ng/ml (mean, 399.3 ± 155.6 ng/ml) at 68.4 to 145.8 minutes (mean, 93 ± 25.8 minutes) after dosing. Mean area under the curve (AUC) on day 1 (mean, 3.37 ± 0.598 ng·min/ml) was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than AUC on day 44 (1.66 ± 0.308 ng·min/ml). Oral clearance was significantly (P < 0.01) greater on day 44 (12.44 ± 2.55 ml/min/kg), compared with that on day 1 (6.16 ± 1.35 ml/min/kg). Values for area under the first moment curve, oral volume of distribution, mean residence time, and elimination half-life were not significantly altered by concurrent administration of phenobarbital.

Administration of phenobarbital altered the disposition of clorazepate such that the amount of nordiazepam in circulation during each dose interval was significantly reduced. Adequate control of seizures in epileptic dogs, therefore, may require higher dosages of clorazepate when it is coadministered with phenobarbital.

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