Histomorphologic features of the nasal cavity of pigs exposed to Pasteurella multocida type-D dermonecrotic toxin

Nani G. Ghoshal From the Departments of Veterinary Anatomy (Ghoshal) and Veterinary Pathology (Niyo), College of Veterinary Medicine, lowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, IA 50011.

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 GVSc, DTVM, Dr med vet, PhD
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Yosiya Niyo From the Departments of Veterinary Anatomy (Ghoshal) and Veterinary Pathology (Niyo), College of Veterinary Medicine, lowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, IA 50011.

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 DVM, PhD

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Summary

Microscopic examination of the nasal mucosa of clinically normal specific-pathogen-free pigs and of toxicogenic type-D Pasteurella multocida toxin challenge-exposed_ specific-pathogen-free pigs indicated that the surface epithelium in pigs of both groups was microscopically normal; erosions or appreciable inflammatory changes were not evident. In pigs of both groups and in all 3 regions of the nasal cavity, the endothelial lining of all blood vessels appeared normal without detectable changes to the walls at postinoculation day 10. Vascular injury in the cartilage or the bone was not discernible in control or challenge-exposed pigs.

There were marked differences in the osseous structures of the conchae when the 2 groups were compared. In control pigs, active bone formation and remodeling were observed, and the septal cartilage was normal. In toxin challenge-exposed pigs, there likewise was normal bone formation and remodeling in the vestibular region, and the septal cartilage was normal. In marked contrast, conspicuous changes were observed in the osseous core of the conchae of the respiratory and, sometimes, the olfactory regions. These changes consisted of bone necrosis and resorption by large numbers of osteoclasts with variable replacement by dense mesenchymal stroma, which resulted in conchal atrophy. In the absence of any discernible damage or injury (angiopathy) to the nasal vessels, it appears that the action of the dermonecrotoxin of P multocida serotype D is on the most active osteoblasts and the associated organic matrix of the bone, with subsequent disruption of normal bone formation and remodeling of the nasal conchae.

Summary

Microscopic examination of the nasal mucosa of clinically normal specific-pathogen-free pigs and of toxicogenic type-D Pasteurella multocida toxin challenge-exposed_ specific-pathogen-free pigs indicated that the surface epithelium in pigs of both groups was microscopically normal; erosions or appreciable inflammatory changes were not evident. In pigs of both groups and in all 3 regions of the nasal cavity, the endothelial lining of all blood vessels appeared normal without detectable changes to the walls at postinoculation day 10. Vascular injury in the cartilage or the bone was not discernible in control or challenge-exposed pigs.

There were marked differences in the osseous structures of the conchae when the 2 groups were compared. In control pigs, active bone formation and remodeling were observed, and the septal cartilage was normal. In toxin challenge-exposed pigs, there likewise was normal bone formation and remodeling in the vestibular region, and the septal cartilage was normal. In marked contrast, conspicuous changes were observed in the osseous core of the conchae of the respiratory and, sometimes, the olfactory regions. These changes consisted of bone necrosis and resorption by large numbers of osteoclasts with variable replacement by dense mesenchymal stroma, which resulted in conchal atrophy. In the absence of any discernible damage or injury (angiopathy) to the nasal vessels, it appears that the action of the dermonecrotoxin of P multocida serotype D is on the most active osteoblasts and the associated organic matrix of the bone, with subsequent disruption of normal bone formation and remodeling of the nasal conchae.

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