Preparation and transfusion of canine platelet concentrates

Anthony C. G. Abrams-Ogg From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Abrams-Ogg, Kruth) and Pathology (Valli), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, the Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Carter), the University of Toronto Hospitals’ Cancer Cytogenetics and Molecular Oncology Program, the Oncology Research Program at Toronto Hospital, and the Department of Pathology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5 (Kamel-Reid, Dubé).

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Stephen A. Kruth From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Abrams-Ogg, Kruth) and Pathology (Valli), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, the Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Carter), the University of Toronto Hospitals’ Cancer Cytogenetics and Molecular Oncology Program, the Oncology Research Program at Toronto Hospital, and the Department of Pathology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5 (Kamel-Reid, Dubé).

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Ronald F. Carter From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Abrams-Ogg, Kruth) and Pathology (Valli), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, the Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Carter), the University of Toronto Hospitals’ Cancer Cytogenetics and Molecular Oncology Program, the Oncology Research Program at Toronto Hospital, and the Department of Pathology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5 (Kamel-Reid, Dubé).

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Victor E. Valli From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Abrams-Ogg, Kruth) and Pathology (Valli), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, the Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Carter), the University of Toronto Hospitals’ Cancer Cytogenetics and Molecular Oncology Program, the Oncology Research Program at Toronto Hospital, and the Department of Pathology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5 (Kamel-Reid, Dubé).

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Suzanne Kamel-Reid From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Abrams-Ogg, Kruth) and Pathology (Valli), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, the Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Carter), the University of Toronto Hospitals’ Cancer Cytogenetics and Molecular Oncology Program, the Oncology Research Program at Toronto Hospital, and the Department of Pathology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5 (Kamel-Reid, Dubé).

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Ian D. Dubé From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Abrams-Ogg, Kruth) and Pathology (Valli), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, the Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Carter), the University of Toronto Hospitals’ Cancer Cytogenetics and Molecular Oncology Program, the Oncology Research Program at Toronto Hospital, and the Department of Pathology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5 (Kamel-Reid, Dubé).

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Summary

A protocol was developed for preparation of platelet concentrates (pc) to support thrombocytopenic dogs. Four clinically normal dogs with platelet counts that ranged from 200 to 330 × 109 platelets/L were used as donors. One unit (450 ml) of blood was collected by venipuncture into a double blood bag. Whole blood (wb) was centrifuged for 4 minutes at 1,000 × g (braking time = 2 minutes, 30 seconds) to prepare platelet-rich plasma (prp). The prp was expressed into the satellite bag and was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2,000 × g (braking time = 2 minutes, 36 seconds). The platelet-poor plasma was expressed, leaving 40 to 70 ml of plasma and the pelleted platelets in the satellite bag. The resulting pc was left undisturbed for 60 minutes to promote disaggregation, and the platelets were then resuspended by gentle manual agitation.

Forty-eight pc were prepared. Mean (± sd) platelet yield from wb to prp was 78 (±13)% (range, 35 to 97%); yield from prp to pc was 94 (± 6)% (range, 75 to 100%); and overall yield (pc from wb) was 74(± 13)% (range, 36 to 91%). Mean pc platelet count was 8.0 (± 3.0) × 1010 platelets/pc (range, 2.3 to 13.4 × 1010 platelets/pc). The wbc content was 0.1 to 2.3 × 109 platelets/pc, representing 3 to 74% of wbc in the wb. Hematocrit was 0.1 to 26.2%. Results of bacterial and fungal culturing were negative.

The pc were irradiated (18 Gy) and transfused to 5 cross-matched dogs undergoing bone marrow transplantation that developed profound thrombocytopenia of up to 8 weeks’ duration. Transfusions were given over 5 to 15 minutes, using a latex-free transfusion set. Platelet count in recipients was monitored to confirm reduction in the degree of thrombocytopenia. Mean actual 24-hour post-pc transfusion platelet count was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than mean expected 24-hour platelet count without pc transfusion. Recipients were closely observed for hemorrhage, which did not occur. Prevalence of transfusion reactions was 17%; signs were fever (5/46), urticaria (1/46), vomiting (1/46), and anaphylaxis (1/46).

Summary

A protocol was developed for preparation of platelet concentrates (pc) to support thrombocytopenic dogs. Four clinically normal dogs with platelet counts that ranged from 200 to 330 × 109 platelets/L were used as donors. One unit (450 ml) of blood was collected by venipuncture into a double blood bag. Whole blood (wb) was centrifuged for 4 minutes at 1,000 × g (braking time = 2 minutes, 30 seconds) to prepare platelet-rich plasma (prp). The prp was expressed into the satellite bag and was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2,000 × g (braking time = 2 minutes, 36 seconds). The platelet-poor plasma was expressed, leaving 40 to 70 ml of plasma and the pelleted platelets in the satellite bag. The resulting pc was left undisturbed for 60 minutes to promote disaggregation, and the platelets were then resuspended by gentle manual agitation.

Forty-eight pc were prepared. Mean (± sd) platelet yield from wb to prp was 78 (±13)% (range, 35 to 97%); yield from prp to pc was 94 (± 6)% (range, 75 to 100%); and overall yield (pc from wb) was 74(± 13)% (range, 36 to 91%). Mean pc platelet count was 8.0 (± 3.0) × 1010 platelets/pc (range, 2.3 to 13.4 × 1010 platelets/pc). The wbc content was 0.1 to 2.3 × 109 platelets/pc, representing 3 to 74% of wbc in the wb. Hematocrit was 0.1 to 26.2%. Results of bacterial and fungal culturing were negative.

The pc were irradiated (18 Gy) and transfused to 5 cross-matched dogs undergoing bone marrow transplantation that developed profound thrombocytopenia of up to 8 weeks’ duration. Transfusions were given over 5 to 15 minutes, using a latex-free transfusion set. Platelet count in recipients was monitored to confirm reduction in the degree of thrombocytopenia. Mean actual 24-hour post-pc transfusion platelet count was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than mean expected 24-hour platelet count without pc transfusion. Recipients were closely observed for hemorrhage, which did not occur. Prevalence of transfusion reactions was 17%; signs were fever (5/46), urticaria (1/46), vomiting (1/46), and anaphylaxis (1/46).

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