Effects of ephedrine on cardiovascular function and oxygen delivery in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs

Ann E. Wagner From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Wagner, Dunlop) and Statistics (Chapman), Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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 DVM, MS
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Colin I. Dunlop From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Wagner, Dunlop) and Statistics (Chapman), Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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 BVSc
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Phillip L. Chapman From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Wagner, Dunlop) and Statistics (Chapman), Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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 PhD

Summary

The hemodynamic effects of 2 dosages of ephedrine were studied in 6 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane only (end-tidal concentration equivalent to 1.5 times minimum alveolar concentration). Following instrumentation, baseline (time 0) measurements included heart rate (hr), respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure (map), cardiac output, and blood gas tensions. Cardiac index (ci), stroke volume (sv), systemic vascular resistance (svr), arterial oxygen content (Cao2), and oxygen delivery and consumption (Do2 and Vo2, respectively) were calculated. Three dogs were given ephedrine iv at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight, and 3 dogs were given ephedrine iv at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg. Measurements were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Each dog then received the alternate dosage of ephedrine, and measurements were again recorded at the same intervals. Effects of ephedrine varied with dosage. Neither dosage was associated with significant changes in pH, Pao2, Paco2, Vo2, or respiratory rate. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg caused transient significant increases in map, ci, sv, Cao2, and Do2, significant decreases in hr and svr, and a late, slight decrease in Cao2. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg caused a greater and more prolonged increase in map, as well as increases in ci, sv, and svr, and a decrease in hr. The higher dosage of ephedrine also caused a pronounced increase in hemoglobin concentration and CaO2, resulting in a 20 to 35% increase in Do2 throughout the 60-minute experiment.

Summary

The hemodynamic effects of 2 dosages of ephedrine were studied in 6 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane only (end-tidal concentration equivalent to 1.5 times minimum alveolar concentration). Following instrumentation, baseline (time 0) measurements included heart rate (hr), respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure (map), cardiac output, and blood gas tensions. Cardiac index (ci), stroke volume (sv), systemic vascular resistance (svr), arterial oxygen content (Cao2), and oxygen delivery and consumption (Do2 and Vo2, respectively) were calculated. Three dogs were given ephedrine iv at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight, and 3 dogs were given ephedrine iv at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg. Measurements were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Each dog then received the alternate dosage of ephedrine, and measurements were again recorded at the same intervals. Effects of ephedrine varied with dosage. Neither dosage was associated with significant changes in pH, Pao2, Paco2, Vo2, or respiratory rate. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg caused transient significant increases in map, ci, sv, Cao2, and Do2, significant decreases in hr and svr, and a late, slight decrease in Cao2. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg caused a greater and more prolonged increase in map, as well as increases in ci, sv, and svr, and a decrease in hr. The higher dosage of ephedrine also caused a pronounced increase in hemoglobin concentration and CaO2, resulting in a 20 to 35% increase in Do2 throughout the 60-minute experiment.

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