Development of Anaplasmamarginale in salivary glands of male Dermacentor andersoni

Katherine M. Kocan From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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Will L. Goff From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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David Stiller From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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Wanda Edwards From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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S. A. Ewing From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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P. L. Claypool From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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Travis C. McGuire From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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Jakie A. Hair From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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Selwyn J. Barron From the Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Kocan, Edwards), Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology, and Public Health (Ewing), and Medicine and Surgery (Barron), College of Veterinary Medicine; the Department of Entomology (Hair), and the Department of Statistics (Claypool), Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078; Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Moscow, ID 83843 (Stiller), and Pullman, WA 99164 (Goff); Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (McGuire), College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030.

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SUMMARY

Development of the rickettsia, Anaplasmamarginale, in salivary glands of male Dermacentor andersoni exposed as nymphs or adult ticks, was studied indirectly by inoculation of susceptible calves with homogenates and directly by examination, using light microscopy and a DNA probe; some unfed ticks were incubated before tissues were collected. Salivary gland homogenates made from ticks in every treatment group caused anaplasmosis when injected into susceptible calves; prepatent periods decreased as the time that ticks had fed increased. Colonies of A marginale were seen only in salivary glands of ticks exposed as adults and not in those exposed as nymphs; the percentage of salivary gland acini infected in these ticks increased linearly with feeding time. However, the probe detected A marginale DNA in salivary glands of ticks from both groups; the amount of DNA detected increased as feeding time was extended. The amount of A marginaleDNA appeared to remain constant in gut tissues, but to increase in salivary glands. Salivary glands of adult-infected male ticks that were incubated, but did not feed a second time, became infected with A marginale, and the pattern of infection of acini varied with incubation temperature. Development of A marginale in salivary glands appears to be coordinated with the tick feeding cycle; highest infection rate was observed in ticks exposed as adults.

SUMMARY

Development of the rickettsia, Anaplasmamarginale, in salivary glands of male Dermacentor andersoni exposed as nymphs or adult ticks, was studied indirectly by inoculation of susceptible calves with homogenates and directly by examination, using light microscopy and a DNA probe; some unfed ticks were incubated before tissues were collected. Salivary gland homogenates made from ticks in every treatment group caused anaplasmosis when injected into susceptible calves; prepatent periods decreased as the time that ticks had fed increased. Colonies of A marginale were seen only in salivary glands of ticks exposed as adults and not in those exposed as nymphs; the percentage of salivary gland acini infected in these ticks increased linearly with feeding time. However, the probe detected A marginale DNA in salivary glands of ticks from both groups; the amount of DNA detected increased as feeding time was extended. The amount of A marginaleDNA appeared to remain constant in gut tissues, but to increase in salivary glands. Salivary glands of adult-infected male ticks that were incubated, but did not feed a second time, became infected with A marginale, and the pattern of infection of acini varied with incubation temperature. Development of A marginale in salivary glands appears to be coordinated with the tick feeding cycle; highest infection rate was observed in ticks exposed as adults.

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