Evaluation of intra-articularly administered sodium monoiodoacetate-induced chemical injury to articular cartilage of horses

Scott B. Gustafson From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Gustafson, Trotter), Radiology-Radiation Biology (Wrigley), Pathology (Norrdin), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Department of Anatomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (Lamar).

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Gayle W. Trotter From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Gustafson, Trotter), Radiology-Radiation Biology (Wrigley), Pathology (Norrdin), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Department of Anatomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (Lamar).

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Robert W. Norrdin From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Gustafson, Trotter), Radiology-Radiation Biology (Wrigley), Pathology (Norrdin), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Department of Anatomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (Lamar).

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Robert H. Wrigley From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Gustafson, Trotter), Radiology-Radiation Biology (Wrigley), Pathology (Norrdin), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Department of Anatomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (Lamar).

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C. Lamar From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Gustafson, Trotter), Radiology-Radiation Biology (Wrigley), Pathology (Norrdin), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Department of Anatomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (Lamar).

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Summary

Three doses of sodium monoiodoacetate (mia) were used to induce degenerative changes in articular cartilage in middle carpal joints of horses. Twelve young (2- to 5-year-old) horses, free of lameness, were randomly allotted to 3 groups. One middle carpal joint of each horse was injected with 0.9% NaCl solution (control joint). The contralateral middle carpal joint was injected with 0.09 mg of MlA/kg of body weight (group 1); 0.12 mg/kg (group 2); or 0.16 mg/kg (group 3). After mia administration, horses were allowed ad libitum exercise in a 2-acre paddock for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, gross and microscopic tissue changes were evaluated and biochemical analyses of articular cartilage were done. Grossly, diffuse partial thickness articular cartilage lesions were observed in group-2 (n = 2) and group-3 (n = 4) horses, but not in group-1 horses. Articular cartilage uronic acid content was significantly (P < 0.03) decreased in all mia-injected joints, compared with controls. Articular cartilage matrix staining with safranin-O was decreased in 3 of 4 mia- injected joints of group-1 horses and in all mia-injected joints of group-2 and group-3 horses, compared with controls (P < 0.06). Microscopic degenerative changes in articular cartilage were not significantly different between mia-injected and control joints in group-1 horses, but were increased (P<0.06) in all MlA-injected joints of group-2 and group-3 horses, compared with controls. Qualitatively, decreased matrix staining and degenerative changes were more severe in group-3 horses. On the basis of articular cartilage gross and microscopic changes, as well as biochemical changes, 0.12 mg of mia/kg injected intra-articularly was determined to induce moderate degrees of articular cartilage degeneration. This model of chemically induced articular cartilage injury could be useful for evaluating treatment effects of anti-arthritic drugs in horses.

Summary

Three doses of sodium monoiodoacetate (mia) were used to induce degenerative changes in articular cartilage in middle carpal joints of horses. Twelve young (2- to 5-year-old) horses, free of lameness, were randomly allotted to 3 groups. One middle carpal joint of each horse was injected with 0.9% NaCl solution (control joint). The contralateral middle carpal joint was injected with 0.09 mg of MlA/kg of body weight (group 1); 0.12 mg/kg (group 2); or 0.16 mg/kg (group 3). After mia administration, horses were allowed ad libitum exercise in a 2-acre paddock for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, gross and microscopic tissue changes were evaluated and biochemical analyses of articular cartilage were done. Grossly, diffuse partial thickness articular cartilage lesions were observed in group-2 (n = 2) and group-3 (n = 4) horses, but not in group-1 horses. Articular cartilage uronic acid content was significantly (P < 0.03) decreased in all mia-injected joints, compared with controls. Articular cartilage matrix staining with safranin-O was decreased in 3 of 4 mia- injected joints of group-1 horses and in all mia-injected joints of group-2 and group-3 horses, compared with controls (P < 0.06). Microscopic degenerative changes in articular cartilage were not significantly different between mia-injected and control joints in group-1 horses, but were increased (P<0.06) in all MlA-injected joints of group-2 and group-3 horses, compared with controls. Qualitatively, decreased matrix staining and degenerative changes were more severe in group-3 horses. On the basis of articular cartilage gross and microscopic changes, as well as biochemical changes, 0.12 mg of mia/kg injected intra-articularly was determined to induce moderate degrees of articular cartilage degeneration. This model of chemically induced articular cartilage injury could be useful for evaluating treatment effects of anti-arthritic drugs in horses.

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