Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cows

Ueli Braun Dr From the Clinic of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Veterinary Faculty of the University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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David Gerber From the Clinic of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Veterinary Faculty of the University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Summary

A method was developed for percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cattle. The procedure was performed on the right side in the 9th, 10th, or 11th intercostal space of 30 cows. Of the 30 cows, 20 were slaughtered 24 hours after cholecystocentesis and the remaining 10 cows were slaughtered after a 10-day observation period. Changes in the peritoneum and gallbladder wall, observed at slaughter, were minimal. During the 10-day observation period, general behavior, attitude, and ap-petite of the 10 cows were normal. A transient, slight increase in rectal temperature was observed in 6 cows at 4, 5, or 8 days after cholecystocentesis. Total and differential wbc counts and total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, determined daily, were all within normal ranges. Bile samples from 20 cows were examined microscopically and biochemically. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs were observed in bile from 7 and 12 cows, respectively. Fecal examination revealed F hepatica eggs in 4 cows; D dendriticum eggs were not identified in any of the fecal samples. In 1 cow, F hepatica eggs were observed in the feces, but not in the bile. Bile acids concentration in bile varied from 12.5 to 68.5 mmol/ L (mean ± SD, 45.3 ± 3.05 mmol/L) and in serum from 3.8 to 281.0 μmol/L (41.6 ± 17.24 μmol/L). Negative correlation was obtained between bile acids concentration in bile and that in serum (r = −0.60, P < 0.01). It was concluded that percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cows is a safe procedure and that microscopic and biochemical examinations of obtained bile can be useful diagnostic aids.

Summary

A method was developed for percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cattle. The procedure was performed on the right side in the 9th, 10th, or 11th intercostal space of 30 cows. Of the 30 cows, 20 were slaughtered 24 hours after cholecystocentesis and the remaining 10 cows were slaughtered after a 10-day observation period. Changes in the peritoneum and gallbladder wall, observed at slaughter, were minimal. During the 10-day observation period, general behavior, attitude, and ap-petite of the 10 cows were normal. A transient, slight increase in rectal temperature was observed in 6 cows at 4, 5, or 8 days after cholecystocentesis. Total and differential wbc counts and total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, determined daily, were all within normal ranges. Bile samples from 20 cows were examined microscopically and biochemically. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs were observed in bile from 7 and 12 cows, respectively. Fecal examination revealed F hepatica eggs in 4 cows; D dendriticum eggs were not identified in any of the fecal samples. In 1 cow, F hepatica eggs were observed in the feces, but not in the bile. Bile acids concentration in bile varied from 12.5 to 68.5 mmol/ L (mean ± SD, 45.3 ± 3.05 mmol/L) and in serum from 3.8 to 281.0 μmol/L (41.6 ± 17.24 μmol/L). Negative correlation was obtained between bile acids concentration in bile and that in serum (r = −0.60, P < 0.01). It was concluded that percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cows is a safe procedure and that microscopic and biochemical examinations of obtained bile can be useful diagnostic aids.

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