Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of trichinellosis in swine

Martin L. van der Leek From the Departments of Infectious Diseases (van der Leek, Dame, Adams) and Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Gillis), College of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics (Littell), Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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John B. Dame From the Departments of Infectious Diseases (van der Leek, Dame, Adams) and Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Gillis), College of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics (Littell), Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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Carol L. Adams From the Departments of Infectious Diseases (van der Leek, Dame, Adams) and Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Gillis), College of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics (Littell), Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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Karen D. Gillis From the Departments of Infectious Diseases (van der Leek, Dame, Adams) and Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Gillis), College of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics (Littell), Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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Ramon C. Littell From the Departments of Infectious Diseases (van der Leek, Dame, Adams) and Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Gillis), College of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics (Littell), Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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Summary

Experimental and field trials were conducted to evaluate an elisa for its ability to detect Trichinella-infected domestic swine and to compare elisa results with muscle-digestion test results. The elisa used was a commercial double-antibody kit, containing an excretory-secretory antigen, and was evaluated principally for epidemiologic use. Experimentally induced infection in swine (4 groups of 3 pigs each; inoculated with 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 larvae) was detected as early as postinoculation week 4, with seroconversion of all inoculated swine by postinoculation week 8. The rate of seroconversion appeared to be affected by initial larval dose, time after inoculation, and immunocompetence of the individual host. Determination of antibody kinetics generally revealed rapidly increasing antibody titer, followed by its steady decrease in most pigs. Once seropositive, however, all pigs remained seropositive for the duration of the 10-week study. Presence of muscle larvae was confirmed in all infected pigs at termination of the study. We recognize that the experimental conditions may not be truly representative of those under which natural infection develops in pigs; however, the elisa detected an infected pig with muscle larval density of 0.87 larvae/g of tissue. Results of a field trial (n = 310) indicated no muscle digestion test-positive pigs (35 g of diaphragm muscle digested/pig), but 3 samples tested positive by elisa for specificity of 99.0%.

Summary

Experimental and field trials were conducted to evaluate an elisa for its ability to detect Trichinella-infected domestic swine and to compare elisa results with muscle-digestion test results. The elisa used was a commercial double-antibody kit, containing an excretory-secretory antigen, and was evaluated principally for epidemiologic use. Experimentally induced infection in swine (4 groups of 3 pigs each; inoculated with 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 larvae) was detected as early as postinoculation week 4, with seroconversion of all inoculated swine by postinoculation week 8. The rate of seroconversion appeared to be affected by initial larval dose, time after inoculation, and immunocompetence of the individual host. Determination of antibody kinetics generally revealed rapidly increasing antibody titer, followed by its steady decrease in most pigs. Once seropositive, however, all pigs remained seropositive for the duration of the 10-week study. Presence of muscle larvae was confirmed in all infected pigs at termination of the study. We recognize that the experimental conditions may not be truly representative of those under which natural infection develops in pigs; however, the elisa detected an infected pig with muscle larval density of 0.87 larvae/g of tissue. Results of a field trial (n = 310) indicated no muscle digestion test-positive pigs (35 g of diaphragm muscle digested/pig), but 3 samples tested positive by elisa for specificity of 99.0%.

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