Increased numbers of duodenal mucosal mast cells in turkeys inoculated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus

Kenneth Opengart From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Opengart, Domermuth) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences (Eyre), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Peter Eyre From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Opengart, Domermuth) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences (Eyre), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Charles H. Domermuth From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Opengart, Domermuth) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences (Eyre), Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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 PhD

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Summary

The relation between average duodenal mast cell count, duodenal mucosal mast cell numbers, duodenal connective tissue mast cell numbers, circulating basophil numbers, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and lesion score were studied to gain an understanding of the events that may lead to intestinal lesion formation associated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus (hev) infection. Changes in vascular permeability in the duodenum in birds inoculated with hev were examined, using colloidal carbon and ferritin as vascular markers. Turkeys inoculated with hev had significantly (P < 0.05) higher duodenal mast cell counts than did noninfected controls. Birds inoculated with hev had significantly (P < 0.05) more mucosal mast cells than did phosphate-buffered saline solution-inoculated birds. Connective tissue mast cell and basophil numbers were unaffected by viral inoculation. Thermal stress did not have significant effect on lesion severity, but did increase number of birds that developed the characteristic intestinal lesions. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in hev-inoculated birds, compared with phosphate-buffered saline solution-inoculated controls. Increase in vascular permeability was only detected in hev-inoculated birds with intestinal lesions. Results indicate that mast cells, and the vasoactive mediators contained within mast cells, may be important in the early manifestation of hev infection. They also provide a possible mechanism through which biochemical and physiologic changes characteristic of hev infection can occur.

Summary

The relation between average duodenal mast cell count, duodenal mucosal mast cell numbers, duodenal connective tissue mast cell numbers, circulating basophil numbers, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and lesion score were studied to gain an understanding of the events that may lead to intestinal lesion formation associated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus (hev) infection. Changes in vascular permeability in the duodenum in birds inoculated with hev were examined, using colloidal carbon and ferritin as vascular markers. Turkeys inoculated with hev had significantly (P < 0.05) higher duodenal mast cell counts than did noninfected controls. Birds inoculated with hev had significantly (P < 0.05) more mucosal mast cells than did phosphate-buffered saline solution-inoculated birds. Connective tissue mast cell and basophil numbers were unaffected by viral inoculation. Thermal stress did not have significant effect on lesion severity, but did increase number of birds that developed the characteristic intestinal lesions. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in hev-inoculated birds, compared with phosphate-buffered saline solution-inoculated controls. Increase in vascular permeability was only detected in hev-inoculated birds with intestinal lesions. Results indicate that mast cells, and the vasoactive mediators contained within mast cells, may be important in the early manifestation of hev infection. They also provide a possible mechanism through which biochemical and physiologic changes characteristic of hev infection can occur.

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