Effects of freezing on mechanical properties of rat skin

T. L. Foutz From the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (Foutz, Abrams) and the Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Stone), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695.

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E. A. Stone From the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (Foutz, Abrams) and the Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Stone), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695.

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C. F. Abrams Jr. From the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (Foutz, Abrams) and the Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Stone), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695.

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Summary

Two test specimens of skin were cut from the lateral aspect of each hind limb of 9 rats. Specimens were contiguous, thereby providing matched pairs. One specimen was immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for 5 minutes, then stored at −70 C and tested within 3 to 4 weeks. Within 5 minutes of harvest, the second specimen was used for immediate material testing. Basic engineering material tests were used to measure strength, loading response, and elastic and viscous properties. Each matched pair of tissues was used for the same procedure.

Quasistatic uniaxial tensile tests were used to apply deformations to the test specimens, and resulting loads were recorded. Stress and strain were calculated from the recorded data, providing information on yield strength, ultimate strength, fracture strength, and loading response. Each matched pair of specimens represented 1 repetition; 6 repetitions were made of each observation. Statistical analysis indicated that tissue freezing significantly (P < 0.05) increased fracture strength, but did not affect strength, ultimate strength, or loading response.

Dynamic vibration response tests were used to find mechanical mobility of the specimens, thereby providing information on elastic and viscous behaviors, which were quantified by calculation of spring and damping coefficients, respectively. As before, 6 repetitions were used. Statistical analysis indicated that tissue freezing did not affect these coefficients.

Summary

Two test specimens of skin were cut from the lateral aspect of each hind limb of 9 rats. Specimens were contiguous, thereby providing matched pairs. One specimen was immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for 5 minutes, then stored at −70 C and tested within 3 to 4 weeks. Within 5 minutes of harvest, the second specimen was used for immediate material testing. Basic engineering material tests were used to measure strength, loading response, and elastic and viscous properties. Each matched pair of tissues was used for the same procedure.

Quasistatic uniaxial tensile tests were used to apply deformations to the test specimens, and resulting loads were recorded. Stress and strain were calculated from the recorded data, providing information on yield strength, ultimate strength, fracture strength, and loading response. Each matched pair of specimens represented 1 repetition; 6 repetitions were made of each observation. Statistical analysis indicated that tissue freezing significantly (P < 0.05) increased fracture strength, but did not affect strength, ultimate strength, or loading response.

Dynamic vibration response tests were used to find mechanical mobility of the specimens, thereby providing information on elastic and viscous behaviors, which were quantified by calculation of spring and damping coefficients, respectively. As before, 6 repetitions were used. Statistical analysis indicated that tissue freezing did not affect these coefficients.

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