Increased elastase activity in nasal mucus associated with nasal colonization by Pasteurella haemolytica in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-infected calves

Robert E. Briggs From the National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010.

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 DVM, MS
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Glynn H. Frank From the National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010.

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 DVM, PhD

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Summary

Four healthy calves were inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 by instillation of a broth culture into the middle nasal meatus of the left nostril. Four weeks later, calves were exposed to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by aerosol into both nostrils. All calves became ill, from approximately day 3 through day 10 after virus exposure, and shed increased amounts of nasal mucus. Two calves were induced to shed P haemolytica by the virus infection, and 2 calves required reinoculation with P haemolytica for nasal passages to become actively colonized.

Elastase activity in nasal mucus increased about 15-fold within 3 days and peaked about 60-fold over baseline by 7 days after virus exposure. Activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a measure of cell damage and serum leakage, increased slightly by day 3 and reached plateau on day 5, almost threefold over baseline activity. Protein and carbohydrate content increased at a rate similar to that of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity with about 12-fold and sixfold increases, respectively. None of the variables returned to baseline by 19 days after virus exposure. Increased elastase activity preceded colonization by P haemolytica and decreasing elastase activity preceded decreasing P haemolytica concentration in the nasal secretions. A causal relation between elastase activity and P haemolytica colonization could be mediated by cleavage of epithelial cell surface fibronectin and exposure of receptors.

Summary

Four healthy calves were inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 by instillation of a broth culture into the middle nasal meatus of the left nostril. Four weeks later, calves were exposed to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by aerosol into both nostrils. All calves became ill, from approximately day 3 through day 10 after virus exposure, and shed increased amounts of nasal mucus. Two calves were induced to shed P haemolytica by the virus infection, and 2 calves required reinoculation with P haemolytica for nasal passages to become actively colonized.

Elastase activity in nasal mucus increased about 15-fold within 3 days and peaked about 60-fold over baseline by 7 days after virus exposure. Activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a measure of cell damage and serum leakage, increased slightly by day 3 and reached plateau on day 5, almost threefold over baseline activity. Protein and carbohydrate content increased at a rate similar to that of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity with about 12-fold and sixfold increases, respectively. None of the variables returned to baseline by 19 days after virus exposure. Increased elastase activity preceded colonization by P haemolytica and decreasing elastase activity preceded decreasing P haemolytica concentration in the nasal secretions. A causal relation between elastase activity and P haemolytica colonization could be mediated by cleavage of epithelial cell surface fibronectin and exposure of receptors.

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