192Iridium brachytherapy, using an intracavitary afterload device, for treatment of intranasal neoplasms in dogs

James P. Thompson From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

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Norman Ackerman From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

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Jamie R. Bellah From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

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Brian S. Beale From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

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Gary W. Ellison From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

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Summary

After surgical removal of a primary intranasal neoplasm an implant device, designed to deliver 192iridium (192Ir) brachytherapy, was positioned in the nasal cavity of 8 dogs. Ribbons containing 192Ir seeds were placed in the device, using an afterloading technique. Dosimetry, to a dose of 7,000 to 10,000 centiGray (cGy), was calculated to encompass the site previously occupied by the tumor and a 1-cm margin of surrounding normal tissue. The quantity of 192Ir implanted varied between 16.69 and 100.80 mg of radium equivalent. The duration of implantation ranged from 90 to 168 hours. All dogs tolerated the implant well, but had a mucoid nasal discharge after radiotherapy. The implant device allowed rapid application and removal of the radioactive ribbons. Mean (± sd) radiation exposure to each radiotherapist during seed loading and unloading was 14.4 (± 5.3) and 4.5 (± 0.9) mrem, respectively. A uniform dose distribution around the intranasal implant device was achieved; however, dogs that received doses in excess of 9,400 cGy at the dorsolateral surface of the nose and/or hard palate had bone and soft tissue necrosis between 70 and 120 days after treatment. One dog was euthanatized 50 days after treatment because of metastatic disease, and 2 dogs were euthanatized because of local tumor recurrence at 125 and 212 days. Death, considered unrelated to treatment, occurred in 1 dog that was euthanatized 27 days after treatment and in 3 dogs that died 30, 93, and 456 days after treatment. Necropsy was performed on 3 of these dogs and evidence of intranasal neoplasia was not observed. One dog remained disease-free at 587 days after treatment.

Summary

After surgical removal of a primary intranasal neoplasm an implant device, designed to deliver 192iridium (192Ir) brachytherapy, was positioned in the nasal cavity of 8 dogs. Ribbons containing 192Ir seeds were placed in the device, using an afterloading technique. Dosimetry, to a dose of 7,000 to 10,000 centiGray (cGy), was calculated to encompass the site previously occupied by the tumor and a 1-cm margin of surrounding normal tissue. The quantity of 192Ir implanted varied between 16.69 and 100.80 mg of radium equivalent. The duration of implantation ranged from 90 to 168 hours. All dogs tolerated the implant well, but had a mucoid nasal discharge after radiotherapy. The implant device allowed rapid application and removal of the radioactive ribbons. Mean (± sd) radiation exposure to each radiotherapist during seed loading and unloading was 14.4 (± 5.3) and 4.5 (± 0.9) mrem, respectively. A uniform dose distribution around the intranasal implant device was achieved; however, dogs that received doses in excess of 9,400 cGy at the dorsolateral surface of the nose and/or hard palate had bone and soft tissue necrosis between 70 and 120 days after treatment. One dog was euthanatized 50 days after treatment because of metastatic disease, and 2 dogs were euthanatized because of local tumor recurrence at 125 and 212 days. Death, considered unrelated to treatment, occurred in 1 dog that was euthanatized 27 days after treatment and in 3 dogs that died 30, 93, and 456 days after treatment. Necropsy was performed on 3 of these dogs and evidence of intranasal neoplasia was not observed. One dog remained disease-free at 587 days after treatment.

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