Respiratory muscle perfusion in ponies during prolonged submaximal exercise in thermoneutral environment

Murli Manohar From the Department of Veterinary Biosciences (Manohar, Day), University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL 61801, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Duren, Sikkes, Baker), University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY 40546.

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Stephen E. Duren From the Department of Veterinary Biosciences (Manohar, Day), University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL 61801, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Duren, Sikkes, Baker), University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY 40546.

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Bridget Sikkes From the Department of Veterinary Biosciences (Manohar, Day), University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL 61801, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Duren, Sikkes, Baker), University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY 40546.

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Jennifer Day From the Department of Veterinary Biosciences (Manohar, Day), University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL 61801, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Duren, Sikkes, Baker), University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY 40546.

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John P. Baker From the Department of Veterinary Biosciences (Manohar, Day), University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL 61801, and the Department of Animal Sciences (Duren, Sikkes, Baker), University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY 40546.

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Summary

Distribution of blood flow among various respiratory muscles was examined in 8 healthy ponies during submaximal exercise lasting 30 minutes, using radionuclide labeled 15-μm diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle. From the resting values (40 ± 2 beats/min; 37.3 ± 0.2 C), heart rate and pulmonary arterial blood temperature increased significantly at 5 (152 ± 8 beats/min; 38.6 ± 0.2 C), 15 (169 ± 6 beats/min; 39.8 ± 0.2 C), and 26 (186 ± 8 beats/min; 40.8 ± 0.2 C) minutes of exertion, and the ponies sweated profusely. Mean aortic pressure also increased progressively as exercise duration increased. Blood flow increased significantly with exercise in all respiratory muscles. Among inspiratory muscles, perfusion was greatest in the diaphragm and ventral serratus, compared with external intercostal, dorsal serratas, and scalenus muscles. Among expiratory muscles, blood flow in the internal abdominal oblique muscle was greatest, followed by that in internal intercostal and transverse throacic muscles, in which the flow values remained similar. The remaining 3 abdominal muscles had similar blood flow, but these values were less than that in the internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Blood flow values for all inspiratory and expiratory muscles remained similar for the 5 and 15 minutes of exertion. However, at 26 minutes, blood flow had increased further in the diaphragm, external intercostal, internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and the external abdominal oblique muscle as vascular resistance decreased. On the basis of our findings, all respiratory muscles were activated during submaximal exercise and their perfusion had marked heterogeneity. Also, blood flow in respiratory muscles was well maintained as exercise duration progressed; in fact, several muscles had a further increase in perfusion late during exercise.

Summary

Distribution of blood flow among various respiratory muscles was examined in 8 healthy ponies during submaximal exercise lasting 30 minutes, using radionuclide labeled 15-μm diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle. From the resting values (40 ± 2 beats/min; 37.3 ± 0.2 C), heart rate and pulmonary arterial blood temperature increased significantly at 5 (152 ± 8 beats/min; 38.6 ± 0.2 C), 15 (169 ± 6 beats/min; 39.8 ± 0.2 C), and 26 (186 ± 8 beats/min; 40.8 ± 0.2 C) minutes of exertion, and the ponies sweated profusely. Mean aortic pressure also increased progressively as exercise duration increased. Blood flow increased significantly with exercise in all respiratory muscles. Among inspiratory muscles, perfusion was greatest in the diaphragm and ventral serratus, compared with external intercostal, dorsal serratas, and scalenus muscles. Among expiratory muscles, blood flow in the internal abdominal oblique muscle was greatest, followed by that in internal intercostal and transverse throacic muscles, in which the flow values remained similar. The remaining 3 abdominal muscles had similar blood flow, but these values were less than that in the internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Blood flow values for all inspiratory and expiratory muscles remained similar for the 5 and 15 minutes of exertion. However, at 26 minutes, blood flow had increased further in the diaphragm, external intercostal, internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and the external abdominal oblique muscle as vascular resistance decreased. On the basis of our findings, all respiratory muscles were activated during submaximal exercise and their perfusion had marked heterogeneity. Also, blood flow in respiratory muscles was well maintained as exercise duration progressed; in fact, several muscles had a further increase in perfusion late during exercise.

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