Clinical and metabolic findings in dogs with chronic renal failure fed two diets

Bernie Hansen From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hansen, DiBartola, Chew) and Pathobiology (Nagode), College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, and Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Brownie).

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Stephen P. DiBartola From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hansen, DiBartola, Chew) and Pathobiology (Nagode), College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, and Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Brownie).

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Dennis J. Chew From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hansen, DiBartola, Chew) and Pathobiology (Nagode), College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, and Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Brownie).

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Cavell Brownie From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hansen, DiBartola, Chew) and Pathobiology (Nagode), College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, and Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Brownie).

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Larry Nagode From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hansen, DiBartola, Chew) and Pathobiology (Nagode), College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, and Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Brownie).

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Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

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