Absorption of an alternate source of immunoglobulin in pups

Guy Bouchard From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Hernando Plata-Madrid From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Robert S. Youngquist From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Gerald M. Buening From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Venkataseshu K. Ganjam From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Gary F. Krause From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Gary K. Allen From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Allyson L. Paine From the Departments of Medicine and Surgery (Bouchard, Plata-Madrid, Youngquist, Paine) and Veterinary Microbiology (Buening, Ganjam, Allen), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sinclair Medical Research Farm (Bouchard), Agriculture Experimental Station (Krause), University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

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Summary

Newborn pups from 4 large litters were allotted to 6 groups to determine effect of time and route of administration on absorption of an alternate source of immunoglobulin. Selective absorption of specific classes of immunoglobulins was also investigated. The alternate source of immunoglobulin consisted of pooled serum that was administered either po or sc. Control groups were either left with the dam (group C1) or fed milk replacer (group C2). Blood samples were collected from pups at birth and 24 hours. Immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) concentrations were determined by use of radial immunodiffusion on samples of pooled serum, colostrum, and pups’ serum (birth and 24 hours).

Serum IgA concentration was less than the sensitivity of the procedure and was not included in the statistical analysis. Pups fed 8 ml of pooled serum at birth and 12 hours later (group T1) absorbed more (P< 0.05) IgG and IgM than did group-C2 pups, but less (P < 0.05) than did group-C1 pups. Pups fed 8 ml of pooled serum at 12 hours only had significant (P < 0.05) increase of IgG concentration, but no absorption of IgM (P > 0.05) at 24 hours, compared with control pups (group C2). Pups administered 8 ml of pooled serum SC at birth (group SC1) had similar (P > 0.05) absorption of IgG and higher (P < 0.05) absorption of IgM than did pups of group T1. Pups administered 16 ml of pooled serum sc at birth had the highest increase of IgG and IgM concentrations of all treatment groups, but immunoglobulin concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) than those for group-C1 pups. Absorption of IgG was favored, compared with IgM, when pooled serum was fed.

Results indicate clearly that intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins is minimal after 12 hours and thus, another route of administration should be used. Pups in groups SC1 and T1 had similar absorption of IgG, despite lower IgM absorption in pups of group T1. This lower IgM concentration in group-T1 pups may have been the result of selective intestinal absorption or the consequence of low number of pups per group. Subcutaneous administration of 16 ml of pooled serum was the most successful alternative to colostrum, with minimal pain to pups if serum was administered slowly. Serum IgG concentration in Cl pups was higher than expected and probably was attributable to the amount of colostrum available to the pups.

Summary

Newborn pups from 4 large litters were allotted to 6 groups to determine effect of time and route of administration on absorption of an alternate source of immunoglobulin. Selective absorption of specific classes of immunoglobulins was also investigated. The alternate source of immunoglobulin consisted of pooled serum that was administered either po or sc. Control groups were either left with the dam (group C1) or fed milk replacer (group C2). Blood samples were collected from pups at birth and 24 hours. Immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) concentrations were determined by use of radial immunodiffusion on samples of pooled serum, colostrum, and pups’ serum (birth and 24 hours).

Serum IgA concentration was less than the sensitivity of the procedure and was not included in the statistical analysis. Pups fed 8 ml of pooled serum at birth and 12 hours later (group T1) absorbed more (P< 0.05) IgG and IgM than did group-C2 pups, but less (P < 0.05) than did group-C1 pups. Pups fed 8 ml of pooled serum at 12 hours only had significant (P < 0.05) increase of IgG concentration, but no absorption of IgM (P > 0.05) at 24 hours, compared with control pups (group C2). Pups administered 8 ml of pooled serum SC at birth (group SC1) had similar (P > 0.05) absorption of IgG and higher (P < 0.05) absorption of IgM than did pups of group T1. Pups administered 16 ml of pooled serum sc at birth had the highest increase of IgG and IgM concentrations of all treatment groups, but immunoglobulin concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) than those for group-C1 pups. Absorption of IgG was favored, compared with IgM, when pooled serum was fed.

Results indicate clearly that intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins is minimal after 12 hours and thus, another route of administration should be used. Pups in groups SC1 and T1 had similar absorption of IgG, despite lower IgM absorption in pups of group T1. This lower IgM concentration in group-T1 pups may have been the result of selective intestinal absorption or the consequence of low number of pups per group. Subcutaneous administration of 16 ml of pooled serum was the most successful alternative to colostrum, with minimal pain to pups if serum was administered slowly. Serum IgG concentration in Cl pups was higher than expected and probably was attributable to the amount of colostrum available to the pups.

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