Pharmacokinetic evaluation of enrofloxacin administered orally to healthy dogs

Robert D. Walker From the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (Walker, MacDonald) and the Departments of Microbiology (Walker) and Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hauptman), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Medicine, College of Human Medicine (Stein), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Gary E. Stein From the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (Walker, MacDonald) and the Departments of Microbiology (Walker) and Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hauptman), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Medicine, College of Human Medicine (Stein), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Joseph G. Hauptman From the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (Walker, MacDonald) and the Departments of Microbiology (Walker) and Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hauptman), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Medicine, College of Human Medicine (Stein), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Kathleen H. MacDonald From the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (Walker, MacDonald) and the Departments of Microbiology (Walker) and Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hauptman), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Medicine, College of Human Medicine (Stein), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Summary

Enrofloxacin was administered orally to 6 healthy dogs at dosages of approximately 2.75, 5.5, and 11 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 4 days, with a 4-week interval between dosage regimens. Serum and tissue cage fluid (tcf) concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured after the first and seventh treatments. The mean peak serum concentration occurred between 1 and 2.5 hours after dosing. Peak serum concentrations increased with increases in dosage. For each dosage regimen, there was an accumulation of enrofloxacin between the first and seventh treatment, as demonstrated by a significant (P = 0.001) increase in peak serum concentrations. The serum elimination half-life increased from 3.39 hours for the 2.75 mg/kg dosage to 4.94 hours for the 11 mg/kg dosage. Enrofloxacin accumulated slowly into tcf, with peak concentrations being approximately 58% of those of serum. The time of peak tcf concentrations occurred between 3.8 hours and 5.9 hours after drug administration, depending on the dosage and whether it was after single or multiple administrations. Compared with serum concentrations (area under the curvetcf/area under the curveserum), the percentage of enrofloxacin penetration into tcf was 85% at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg, 83% at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg, and 88% at a dosage of 11 mg/kg. All 3 dosage regimens of enrofloxacin induced continuous serum and tcf concentrations greater than the minimal concentration required to inhibit 90% (mic90) of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic clinical isolates tested, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only the 11 mg/kg dosage regimen provided continuous serum and tcf concentrations that exceeded the mic90 for P aeruginosa isolates; whereas none of the dosages induced serum or tcf concentrations greater than the mic90 of the obligate anaerobic bacteria tested.

Summary

Enrofloxacin was administered orally to 6 healthy dogs at dosages of approximately 2.75, 5.5, and 11 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 4 days, with a 4-week interval between dosage regimens. Serum and tissue cage fluid (tcf) concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured after the first and seventh treatments. The mean peak serum concentration occurred between 1 and 2.5 hours after dosing. Peak serum concentrations increased with increases in dosage. For each dosage regimen, there was an accumulation of enrofloxacin between the first and seventh treatment, as demonstrated by a significant (P = 0.001) increase in peak serum concentrations. The serum elimination half-life increased from 3.39 hours for the 2.75 mg/kg dosage to 4.94 hours for the 11 mg/kg dosage. Enrofloxacin accumulated slowly into tcf, with peak concentrations being approximately 58% of those of serum. The time of peak tcf concentrations occurred between 3.8 hours and 5.9 hours after drug administration, depending on the dosage and whether it was after single or multiple administrations. Compared with serum concentrations (area under the curvetcf/area under the curveserum), the percentage of enrofloxacin penetration into tcf was 85% at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg, 83% at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg, and 88% at a dosage of 11 mg/kg. All 3 dosage regimens of enrofloxacin induced continuous serum and tcf concentrations greater than the minimal concentration required to inhibit 90% (mic90) of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic clinical isolates tested, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only the 11 mg/kg dosage regimen provided continuous serum and tcf concentrations that exceeded the mic90 for P aeruginosa isolates; whereas none of the dosages induced serum or tcf concentrations greater than the mic90 of the obligate anaerobic bacteria tested.

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