Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares

T. E. Specht From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Murray P. Brown From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Ronald R. Gronwall From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Wendy J. Rib From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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A. E. Houston From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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SUMMARY

Serum concentrations of metronidazole were determined in 6 healthy adult mares after a single iv injection of metronidazole (15 mg/kg of body weight). The mean elimination rate (K) was 0.23 h-1, and the mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 3.1 hours. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 0.69 L/kg, and the clearance was 168 ml/h/kg.

Each mare was then given a loading dose (15 mg/kg) of metronidazole at time 0, followed by 4 maintenance doses (7.5 mg/kg, q 6 h) by nasogastric tube. Metronidazole concentrations were measured in serial samples of serum, synovia, peritoneal fluid, and urine. Metronidazole concentrations in csf and endometrial tissues were measured after the fourth maintenance dose. The highest mean concentration in serum was 13.9 ± 2.18 μg/ml at 40 minutes after the loading dose (time 0). The highest mean synovial and peritoneal fluid concentrations were 8.9 ± 1.31 μg/ml and 12.8 ± 3.21 μg/ml, respectively, 2 hours after the loading dose. The lowest mean trough concentration in urine was 32 μg/ml. Mean concentration of metronidazole in csf was 4.3 ± 2.51 μg/ml and the mean concentration in endometrial tissues was 0.9 ± 0.48 μg/g at 3 hours after the fourth maintenance dose.

Two mares hospitalized for treatment of bacterial pleuropneumonia were given metronidazole (15.0 mg/kg, po, initially then 7.5 mg/kg, po, q 6 h), while concurrently receiving gentamicin, potassium penicillin, and flunixin meglumine iv. Metronidazole pharmacokinetics and serum concentrations in the sick mares were similar to those obtained in the healthy mares.

SUMMARY

Serum concentrations of metronidazole were determined in 6 healthy adult mares after a single iv injection of metronidazole (15 mg/kg of body weight). The mean elimination rate (K) was 0.23 h-1, and the mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 3.1 hours. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 0.69 L/kg, and the clearance was 168 ml/h/kg.

Each mare was then given a loading dose (15 mg/kg) of metronidazole at time 0, followed by 4 maintenance doses (7.5 mg/kg, q 6 h) by nasogastric tube. Metronidazole concentrations were measured in serial samples of serum, synovia, peritoneal fluid, and urine. Metronidazole concentrations in csf and endometrial tissues were measured after the fourth maintenance dose. The highest mean concentration in serum was 13.9 ± 2.18 μg/ml at 40 minutes after the loading dose (time 0). The highest mean synovial and peritoneal fluid concentrations were 8.9 ± 1.31 μg/ml and 12.8 ± 3.21 μg/ml, respectively, 2 hours after the loading dose. The lowest mean trough concentration in urine was 32 μg/ml. Mean concentration of metronidazole in csf was 4.3 ± 2.51 μg/ml and the mean concentration in endometrial tissues was 0.9 ± 0.48 μg/g at 3 hours after the fourth maintenance dose.

Two mares hospitalized for treatment of bacterial pleuropneumonia were given metronidazole (15.0 mg/kg, po, initially then 7.5 mg/kg, po, q 6 h), while concurrently receiving gentamicin, potassium penicillin, and flunixin meglumine iv. Metronidazole pharmacokinetics and serum concentrations in the sick mares were similar to those obtained in the healthy mares.

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