Effects of ketamine infusion on halothane minimal alveolar concentration in horses

William W. Muir III From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Richard Sams From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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SUMMARY

Eight adult horses were used in a study to determine ketamine's ability to reduce halothane requirement. To obtain steady-state plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/ml, loading doses and constant infusions for ketamine were calculated for each horse on the basis of data from other studies in which the pharmacokinetic properties of ketamine were investigated. Blood samples for determination of plasma ketamine concentrations were collected periodically during each experiment. Plasma ketamine concentrations were determined by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry under electron-impact ionization conditions, using lidocaine as the internal standard. Halothane minimal alveolar concentration (mac; concentration at which half the horses moved in response to an electrical stimulus) and plasma ketamine concentration were determined after steady-state concentrations of each ketamine infusion had been reached. Plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 μg/ml decreased halothane mac. The degree of mac reduction was correlated directly with the square root of the plasma ketamine concentration, reaching a maximum of 37% reduction at a plasma ketamine concentration of 10.8 ± 2.7 μg/ml. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and the rate of increase of right ventricular pressure did not change with increasing plasma ketamine concentration and halothane mac reduction. Cardiac output increased significantly during ketamine infusions and halothane mac reduction. Our findings suggest that plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 μm/ml reduce halothane mac and produce beneficial hemodynamic effects.

SUMMARY

Eight adult horses were used in a study to determine ketamine's ability to reduce halothane requirement. To obtain steady-state plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/ml, loading doses and constant infusions for ketamine were calculated for each horse on the basis of data from other studies in which the pharmacokinetic properties of ketamine were investigated. Blood samples for determination of plasma ketamine concentrations were collected periodically during each experiment. Plasma ketamine concentrations were determined by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry under electron-impact ionization conditions, using lidocaine as the internal standard. Halothane minimal alveolar concentration (mac; concentration at which half the horses moved in response to an electrical stimulus) and plasma ketamine concentration were determined after steady-state concentrations of each ketamine infusion had been reached. Plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 μg/ml decreased halothane mac. The degree of mac reduction was correlated directly with the square root of the plasma ketamine concentration, reaching a maximum of 37% reduction at a plasma ketamine concentration of 10.8 ± 2.7 μg/ml. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and the rate of increase of right ventricular pressure did not change with increasing plasma ketamine concentration and halothane mac reduction. Cardiac output increased significantly during ketamine infusions and halothane mac reduction. Our findings suggest that plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 μm/ml reduce halothane mac and produce beneficial hemodynamic effects.

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