Transplacental infection of porcine fetuses following experimental challenge inoculation with encephalomyocarditis virus

W. T. Christianson From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 385 AnSci/VetMed Bldg, 1988 Fitch Ave, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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H. S. Kim From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 385 AnSci/VetMed Bldg, 1988 Fitch Ave, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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I. J. Yoon From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 385 AnSci/VetMed Bldg, 1988 Fitch Ave, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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H. S. Joo From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 385 AnSci/VetMed Bldg, 1988 Fitch Ave, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Summary

Ten multiparous sows were inoculated between 46 and 50 days of gestation with a fetal swine isolate of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) to investigate the ability of the virus to cause transplacental infection and fetal death. Four sows (group 1) were inoculated im with emcv MN-25 that had been passaged 4 times on baby hamster kidney-21 line cell monolayers. Two sows were euthanatized at postinoculation (pi) day 23, and the other 2 sows at pi day 44. An additional 6 sows (group 2) were inoculated IM with the same virus that had been passaged 5 additional times in pigs. Two sows were euthanatized at 14 days, and the remaining 4 sows at PI day 28. Clinical signs were not observed in any of the sows, whereas all sows seroconverted to emcv. In group 1, only 2 of 50 fetuses were mummified. Virus was not recovered, although emcv antibodies were detected in the 2 mummified fetuses. In group 2, the 2 sows that were euthanatized at PI day 14 had 26 normal fetuses and there was no evidence of fetal infection. However, in the 4 sows euthanatized at Pi day 28, 20 of 48 fetuses were mummified, hemorrhagic, or edematous. Encephalomyocarditis virus was recovered from 21 of 48 fetuses. Transplacental infection and fetal deaths in pregnant sows was achieved following infection with emcv passaged in pigs.

Summary

Ten multiparous sows were inoculated between 46 and 50 days of gestation with a fetal swine isolate of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) to investigate the ability of the virus to cause transplacental infection and fetal death. Four sows (group 1) were inoculated im with emcv MN-25 that had been passaged 4 times on baby hamster kidney-21 line cell monolayers. Two sows were euthanatized at postinoculation (pi) day 23, and the other 2 sows at pi day 44. An additional 6 sows (group 2) were inoculated IM with the same virus that had been passaged 5 additional times in pigs. Two sows were euthanatized at 14 days, and the remaining 4 sows at PI day 28. Clinical signs were not observed in any of the sows, whereas all sows seroconverted to emcv. In group 1, only 2 of 50 fetuses were mummified. Virus was not recovered, although emcv antibodies were detected in the 2 mummified fetuses. In group 2, the 2 sows that were euthanatized at PI day 14 had 26 normal fetuses and there was no evidence of fetal infection. However, in the 4 sows euthanatized at Pi day 28, 20 of 48 fetuses were mummified, hemorrhagic, or edematous. Encephalomyocarditis virus was recovered from 21 of 48 fetuses. Transplacental infection and fetal deaths in pregnant sows was achieved following infection with emcv passaged in pigs.

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