Effects of amiodarone on myocardial performance in normal canine hearts and canine hearts with infarcts

Wendy A. Ware From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1935 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210.

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William W. Muir From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1935 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Clifford Swanson From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1935 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210.

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SUMMARY

The effects of iv administered amiodarone, a class-III antiarrhythmic agent, on myocardial contractility, early myocardial relaxation, and hemodynamic variables were evaluated in normal canine hearts and those with infarcts. In the normal canine heart, amiodarone had important, but relatively mild, depressant effects on left ventricular contractility (assessed by maximal positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure (+ dP/dtmax) and maximal elastance (Emax)) and heart rate when given iv at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. An effect on contractility or active relaxation (assessed by maximal negative first derivative of left ventricular pressure (— dP/dtmax) and the time constant of isovolumic pressure decrease) was not identified with smaller doses. Myocardial infarction itself caused a predictable and marked depressant effect on myocardial contractility, as indicated by decreases in + dP/dtmax, ejection fraction, Emax, and — dP/dtmax, and elevation in end diastolic pressure. Additional depressive effects on contractility and active relaxation resulted when 10 mg of amiodarone/kg was administered to dogs with myocardial infarction and these effects were sufficient to worsen acute myocardial infarction-induced heart failure. Significant changes attributable to heart rate alone could not be identified. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that amiodarone administered iv should be used with caution in dogs with compromised ventricular function.

SUMMARY

The effects of iv administered amiodarone, a class-III antiarrhythmic agent, on myocardial contractility, early myocardial relaxation, and hemodynamic variables were evaluated in normal canine hearts and those with infarcts. In the normal canine heart, amiodarone had important, but relatively mild, depressant effects on left ventricular contractility (assessed by maximal positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure (+ dP/dtmax) and maximal elastance (Emax)) and heart rate when given iv at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. An effect on contractility or active relaxation (assessed by maximal negative first derivative of left ventricular pressure (— dP/dtmax) and the time constant of isovolumic pressure decrease) was not identified with smaller doses. Myocardial infarction itself caused a predictable and marked depressant effect on myocardial contractility, as indicated by decreases in + dP/dtmax, ejection fraction, Emax, and — dP/dtmax, and elevation in end diastolic pressure. Additional depressive effects on contractility and active relaxation resulted when 10 mg of amiodarone/kg was administered to dogs with myocardial infarction and these effects were sufficient to worsen acute myocardial infarction-induced heart failure. Significant changes attributable to heart rate alone could not be identified. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that amiodarone administered iv should be used with caution in dogs with compromised ventricular function.

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