Vaccination of calves with a modified bacterin or oil-in-water emulsion containing alkali-detoxified Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide

Jamie Anderson From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Anderson, Smith), and Ribi Immunochem Research Inc, PO Box 1409, Hamilton, MT 59840 (Ulrich).

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Bradford P. Smith From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Anderson, Smith), and Ribi Immunochem Research Inc, PO Box 1409, Hamilton, MT 59840 (Ulrich).

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J. Terry Ulrich From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Anderson, Smith), and Ribi Immunochem Research Inc, PO Box 1409, Hamilton, MT 59840 (Ulrich).

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 PhD

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SUMMARY

Twenty-six clinically normal colostrum-fed dairy calves were allotted to 5 groups. Calves of groups 1 and 2 served as nonvaccinated controls and were challenge-exposed with variable numbers of organisms. Group-3 calves were vaccinated SC with a modified Salmonella typhimurium bacterin. The bacterin was composed of killed acid-hydrolyzed S typhimurium G30/C21 (Re-mutant) whole cells coated with alkali-hydrolyzed S typhimurium LT-2 lipopolysaccharide, as antigen, and monophosphoryl lipid A, as adjuvant. Calves of groups 4 and 5 were vaccinated with a 2% mineral oil-in-water emulsion containing lipopolysaccharide as antigen and monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose 6-6′-dimycolate as adjuvants. Calves of groups 3-5 were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and again at 4 or 6 weeks of age. Adverse reactions were not observed after vaccination. Calves were challenge-exposed orally at 6 or 8 weeks of age with 1.5 × 1011 (groups 1 and 4), or 3.0 × 1011 (groups 2, 3, and 5) colony-forming units of S typhimurium UCD 108-11.

Mortality after challenge exposure was 2 of 5 group-1 calves; 4 of 5 group-2 calves; 5 of 6 group-3 calves; 1 of 5 group-4 calves; and 4 of 5 group-5 calves. Statistical difference between calves of similarly challenge-exposed groups was not evident, indicating failure of either vaccine to protect calves of this age from oral challenge exposure with virulent S typhimurium.

SUMMARY

Twenty-six clinically normal colostrum-fed dairy calves were allotted to 5 groups. Calves of groups 1 and 2 served as nonvaccinated controls and were challenge-exposed with variable numbers of organisms. Group-3 calves were vaccinated SC with a modified Salmonella typhimurium bacterin. The bacterin was composed of killed acid-hydrolyzed S typhimurium G30/C21 (Re-mutant) whole cells coated with alkali-hydrolyzed S typhimurium LT-2 lipopolysaccharide, as antigen, and monophosphoryl lipid A, as adjuvant. Calves of groups 4 and 5 were vaccinated with a 2% mineral oil-in-water emulsion containing lipopolysaccharide as antigen and monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose 6-6′-dimycolate as adjuvants. Calves of groups 3-5 were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and again at 4 or 6 weeks of age. Adverse reactions were not observed after vaccination. Calves were challenge-exposed orally at 6 or 8 weeks of age with 1.5 × 1011 (groups 1 and 4), or 3.0 × 1011 (groups 2, 3, and 5) colony-forming units of S typhimurium UCD 108-11.

Mortality after challenge exposure was 2 of 5 group-1 calves; 4 of 5 group-2 calves; 5 of 6 group-3 calves; 1 of 5 group-4 calves; and 4 of 5 group-5 calves. Statistical difference between calves of similarly challenge-exposed groups was not evident, indicating failure of either vaccine to protect calves of this age from oral challenge exposure with virulent S typhimurium.

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