Haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin as determinants of inflammation in dogs

Philip F. Solter From the Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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Walter E. Hoffmann From the Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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Laura L. Hungerford From the Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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Joel P. Siegel From the Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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Suzanne H. St. Denis From the Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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Joseph L. Dorner From the Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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SUMMARY

Assay procedures for determining serum haptoglobin concentration and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in dogs were validated, and reference values were established. Serum haptoglobin concentration is reported as milligrams per deciliter of cyanmethemoglobin binding capacity, whereas serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was determined by use of p-phenylenediamine as substrate. Both assays were used to analyze serum samples from 288 dogs. In each dog’s case record, clinical history and final diagnosis were evaluated to determine whether the dog had an inflammatory condition. Complete blood cell counts were performed in 265 dogs, using simultaneously collected blood samples. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was determined for 161 dogs. A positive correlation (P < 0.01) was found for serum haptoglobin concentration and for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, compared with wbc counts, segmented neutrophil and band neutrophil counts, and plasma fibrinogen concentration. Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and haptoglobin concentration were up to 6 times more sensitive than fibrinogen concentration or leukocyte counts in detecting inflammation. Specificity of ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was comparable to fibrinogen concentration and leukocyte counts, whereas haptoglobin concentration was found to be slightly less specific. Specificity of haptoglobin concentration improved slightly (from 0.82 to 0.88) when dogs with a history of glucocorticoid administration were excluded from analysis. Predictive value of a negative test result (haptoglobin concentration < 125 mg/dl; ceruloplasmin oxidase activity < 20 IU/L) and predictive value of a positive test result for haptoglobin concentration and ceruloplasmin activity were comparable to or better than fibrinogen concentration or various oxidase leukocyte counts in detection of inflammation in a variety of disease conditions. We concluded that serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin oxidase assays could be used as adjuncts for diagnosis of the inflammation in dogs.

SUMMARY

Assay procedures for determining serum haptoglobin concentration and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in dogs were validated, and reference values were established. Serum haptoglobin concentration is reported as milligrams per deciliter of cyanmethemoglobin binding capacity, whereas serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was determined by use of p-phenylenediamine as substrate. Both assays were used to analyze serum samples from 288 dogs. In each dog’s case record, clinical history and final diagnosis were evaluated to determine whether the dog had an inflammatory condition. Complete blood cell counts were performed in 265 dogs, using simultaneously collected blood samples. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was determined for 161 dogs. A positive correlation (P < 0.01) was found for serum haptoglobin concentration and for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, compared with wbc counts, segmented neutrophil and band neutrophil counts, and plasma fibrinogen concentration. Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and haptoglobin concentration were up to 6 times more sensitive than fibrinogen concentration or leukocyte counts in detecting inflammation. Specificity of ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was comparable to fibrinogen concentration and leukocyte counts, whereas haptoglobin concentration was found to be slightly less specific. Specificity of haptoglobin concentration improved slightly (from 0.82 to 0.88) when dogs with a history of glucocorticoid administration were excluded from analysis. Predictive value of a negative test result (haptoglobin concentration < 125 mg/dl; ceruloplasmin oxidase activity < 20 IU/L) and predictive value of a positive test result for haptoglobin concentration and ceruloplasmin activity were comparable to or better than fibrinogen concentration or various oxidase leukocyte counts in detection of inflammation in a variety of disease conditions. We concluded that serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin oxidase assays could be used as adjuncts for diagnosis of the inflammation in dogs.

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