Mass screening of cattle sera against 14 infectious disease agents, using an ELISA system for monitoring health in livestock

D. E. Behymer From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Behymer, Riemann, Franti); USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services, Sacramento, CA 95827 (Utterback); and 2989 South Orange, Fresno, CA 93725 (D-Elmi).

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H. P. Riemann From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Behymer, Riemann, Franti); USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services, Sacramento, CA 95827 (Utterback); and 2989 South Orange, Fresno, CA 93725 (D-Elmi).

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W. Utterback From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Behymer, Riemann, Franti); USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services, Sacramento, CA 95827 (Utterback); and 2989 South Orange, Fresno, CA 93725 (D-Elmi).

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C. D-Elmi From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Behymer, Riemann, Franti); USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services, Sacramento, CA 95827 (Utterback); and 2989 South Orange, Fresno, CA 93725 (D-Elmi).

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C. E. Franti From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Behymer, Riemann, Franti); USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services, Sacramento, CA 95827 (Utterback); and 2989 South Orange, Fresno, CA 93725 (D-Elmi).

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SUMMARY

Mass screening elisa methods were developed for testing cattle serum for antibodies against 14 common livestock diseases simultaneously. The absorbance values were transformed to a %elisa (spectrophotometric antibody end point) by a computer interfaced with a microplate reader. A histogram indicating a cutoff point and a report for the veterinarian also was generated. The computer program produced a print-out of the antibody profile for each animal tested, the antibody concentration against each disease, and a histogram (antibody profile) showing the prevalence of each disease in the herd. Serum samples were obtained from 1,953 cattle, including 880 dairy cattle from 10 herds and 1,073 beef cattle from 20 herds. These samples were obtained from June 1988 through June 1989. The highest antibody prevalence was against bluetongue virus. Of the 1,953 cattle tested, 1,223 (63%) were seropositive for bluetongue virus, including 502 (57%) of the dairy cattle and 721 (67%) beef cattle. Other antibody prevalences, in descending order, were: rotavirus (44%), Pasteurella spp (25%), Leptospira spp and Haemophilus spp (22%), Mycoplasma spp (18%), parainfluenza virus (17%), Campylobacter spp (16%), Anaplasma marginale (15%), bovine leukosis virus (13%), Brucella spp (8%), Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (8%), bovine viral diarrhea virus (3%), and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (3%). Major differences in antibody prevalence between dairy and beef cattle were that only 4% of the dairy cattle were seropositive for A marginale, compared with 25% of the beef cattle, and conversely, 29% of the dairy cattle were seropositive for bovine leukosis virus, compared with 1% of the beef cattle. Further development of the elisa is advocated for mass screening of livestock sera for the application in epidemiologic methods for disease control in food animals.

SUMMARY

Mass screening elisa methods were developed for testing cattle serum for antibodies against 14 common livestock diseases simultaneously. The absorbance values were transformed to a %elisa (spectrophotometric antibody end point) by a computer interfaced with a microplate reader. A histogram indicating a cutoff point and a report for the veterinarian also was generated. The computer program produced a print-out of the antibody profile for each animal tested, the antibody concentration against each disease, and a histogram (antibody profile) showing the prevalence of each disease in the herd. Serum samples were obtained from 1,953 cattle, including 880 dairy cattle from 10 herds and 1,073 beef cattle from 20 herds. These samples were obtained from June 1988 through June 1989. The highest antibody prevalence was against bluetongue virus. Of the 1,953 cattle tested, 1,223 (63%) were seropositive for bluetongue virus, including 502 (57%) of the dairy cattle and 721 (67%) beef cattle. Other antibody prevalences, in descending order, were: rotavirus (44%), Pasteurella spp (25%), Leptospira spp and Haemophilus spp (22%), Mycoplasma spp (18%), parainfluenza virus (17%), Campylobacter spp (16%), Anaplasma marginale (15%), bovine leukosis virus (13%), Brucella spp (8%), Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (8%), bovine viral diarrhea virus (3%), and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (3%). Major differences in antibody prevalence between dairy and beef cattle were that only 4% of the dairy cattle were seropositive for A marginale, compared with 25% of the beef cattle, and conversely, 29% of the dairy cattle were seropositive for bovine leukosis virus, compared with 1% of the beef cattle. Further development of the elisa is advocated for mass screening of livestock sera for the application in epidemiologic methods for disease control in food animals.

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