Pulmonary particle deposition and airway mucociliary clearance in cold-exposed calves

Donald A. Diesel From the Department of Physiology (Diesel and Tucker) and Radiological Health Sciences (Lebel), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Jack L. Lebel From the Department of Physiology (Diesel and Tucker) and Radiological Health Sciences (Lebel), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Alan Tucker From the Department of Physiology (Diesel and Tucker) and Radiological Health Sciences (Lebel), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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SUMMARY

Effect of cold-induced changes in respiratory pattern on pulmonary particle deposition was investigated in 10 male Holstein calves between the ages of 1 and 3 months. Deposition of intranasally instilled fluorescence-enhanced Pasteurella haemolytica was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for cold-exposed calves and appears to be caused by the cold-induced respiratory pattern change. Deposition was greater in apical and mediastinal lung lobes, but the reason for this preferential deposition is uncertain. Nasal mucus velocity was measured in 4 nonanesthetized calves at ambient temperatures of 2 to 4 C and 16 to 18 C, using tantalum-paraffin oil droplets and serial radiography. Nasal mucus velocity was 24% lower during cold exposure. In addition, the effect of mucosal temperature on tracheal mucus velocity was determined in excised tracheas from 7 calves. A direct relationship existed between mucosal temperature and tracheal mucus velocity within the mucosal temperature range studied (35.0 to 39.5 C). Tracheal air temperature measurements in calves at ambient temperatures of −10.4 C (n = 4) and 18.5 C (n = 5) indicated that conditioning of inspired air is not complete at the tracheal level during extreme cold exposure. Therefore, cold air may directly influence tracheal mucociliary clearance. It is speculated that cold exposure increases pulmonary deposition of pathogens, while simultaneously decreasing mucociliary clearance of the upper airways, thus predisposing cold-exposed calves to respiratory tract infection.

SUMMARY

Effect of cold-induced changes in respiratory pattern on pulmonary particle deposition was investigated in 10 male Holstein calves between the ages of 1 and 3 months. Deposition of intranasally instilled fluorescence-enhanced Pasteurella haemolytica was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for cold-exposed calves and appears to be caused by the cold-induced respiratory pattern change. Deposition was greater in apical and mediastinal lung lobes, but the reason for this preferential deposition is uncertain. Nasal mucus velocity was measured in 4 nonanesthetized calves at ambient temperatures of 2 to 4 C and 16 to 18 C, using tantalum-paraffin oil droplets and serial radiography. Nasal mucus velocity was 24% lower during cold exposure. In addition, the effect of mucosal temperature on tracheal mucus velocity was determined in excised tracheas from 7 calves. A direct relationship existed between mucosal temperature and tracheal mucus velocity within the mucosal temperature range studied (35.0 to 39.5 C). Tracheal air temperature measurements in calves at ambient temperatures of −10.4 C (n = 4) and 18.5 C (n = 5) indicated that conditioning of inspired air is not complete at the tracheal level during extreme cold exposure. Therefore, cold air may directly influence tracheal mucociliary clearance. It is speculated that cold exposure increases pulmonary deposition of pathogens, while simultaneously decreasing mucociliary clearance of the upper airways, thus predisposing cold-exposed calves to respiratory tract infection.

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