Evaluation of urine and serum metabolites in Miniature Schnauzers with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

Jody P. Lulich From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 (Lulich, Osborne, Polzin), Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (Nagode), and Urochemistry Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77005 (Parker).

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Carl A. Osborne From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 (Lulich, Osborne, Polzin), Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (Nagode), and Urochemistry Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77005 (Parker).

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Larry A. Nagode From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 (Lulich, Osborne, Polzin), Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (Nagode), and Urochemistry Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77005 (Parker).

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David J. Polzin From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 (Lulich, Osborne, Polzin), Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (Nagode), and Urochemistry Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77005 (Parker).

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Mary Lou Parke From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 (Lulich, Osborne, Polzin), Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (Nagode), and Urochemistry Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77005 (Parker).

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SUMMARY

To evaluate underlying causes of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, 24-hour excretion of urine metabolites was measured in 6 Miniature Schnauzers that formed calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths during periods when they were fed a standard diet and during periods when food was withheld. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D also were evaluated. Serum calcium concentrations were normal in all 6 affected Miniature Schnauzers; however, during diet consumption, mean 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was significantly (P = 0.025) higher than calcium excretion when food was withheld. In 1 dog, urinary calcium excretion was lower during the period of food consumption, compared with the period when food was withheld. Compared with clinically normal Beagles, Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly greater quantities of calcium when food was consumed (P = 0.0004) and when food was withheld (P = 0.001).

Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly less oxalate than clinically normal Beagles during fed (P = 0.028) and nonfed (P = 0.004) conditions. Affected Miniature Schnauzers also excreted abnormally high quantities of uric acid. Excretion of citrate was not different between Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis and clinically normal Beagles.

In 5 of 6 Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis, concentrations of serum parathyroid hormone were similar to values from age- and gender-matched Miniature Schnauzers without uroliths. The concentration of serum parathyroid hormone in 1 dog was > 4 times the mean concentration of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers. Mean serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in Miniature Schnauzers with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were similar to concentrations of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers.

SUMMARY

To evaluate underlying causes of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, 24-hour excretion of urine metabolites was measured in 6 Miniature Schnauzers that formed calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths during periods when they were fed a standard diet and during periods when food was withheld. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D also were evaluated. Serum calcium concentrations were normal in all 6 affected Miniature Schnauzers; however, during diet consumption, mean 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was significantly (P = 0.025) higher than calcium excretion when food was withheld. In 1 dog, urinary calcium excretion was lower during the period of food consumption, compared with the period when food was withheld. Compared with clinically normal Beagles, Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly greater quantities of calcium when food was consumed (P = 0.0004) and when food was withheld (P = 0.001).

Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly less oxalate than clinically normal Beagles during fed (P = 0.028) and nonfed (P = 0.004) conditions. Affected Miniature Schnauzers also excreted abnormally high quantities of uric acid. Excretion of citrate was not different between Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis and clinically normal Beagles.

In 5 of 6 Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis, concentrations of serum parathyroid hormone were similar to values from age- and gender-matched Miniature Schnauzers without uroliths. The concentration of serum parathyroid hormone in 1 dog was > 4 times the mean concentration of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers. Mean serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in Miniature Schnauzers with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were similar to concentrations of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers.

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