Evaluation of praziquantel for treatment of experimentally induced paragonimiasis in dogs and cats

Dwight D. Bowman From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Frongillo), Clinical Sciences (Beck, Hornbuckle), and Pathology (Blue, Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

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Marguerite K. Frongillo From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Frongillo), Clinical Sciences (Beck, Hornbuckle), and Pathology (Blue, Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

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Robert C. Johnson From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Frongillo), Clinical Sciences (Beck, Hornbuckle), and Pathology (Blue, Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

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Kathy A. Beck From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Frongillo), Clinical Sciences (Beck, Hornbuckle), and Pathology (Blue, Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

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William E. Hornbuckle From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Frongillo), Clinical Sciences (Beck, Hornbuckle), and Pathology (Blue, Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

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Julia T. Blue From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Frongillo), Clinical Sciences (Beck, Hornbuckle), and Pathology (Blue, Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

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SUMMARY

Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically. The 2 untreated animals and 1 treated dog were euthanatized and necropsied to verify lesions and their resolution. All treated animals were considered cured of infection by use of this treatment regimen.

SUMMARY

Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically. The 2 untreated animals and 1 treated dog were euthanatized and necropsied to verify lesions and their resolution. All treated animals were considered cured of infection by use of this treatment regimen.

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